Minicraniotomy versus bur holes for evacuation of chronic subdural collections in infants-a preliminary single-institution experience.
ABSTRACT Various surgical interventions have been described to evacuate chronic subdural collections (CSCs) of infancy. These include transfontanel percutaneous aspiration, subdural drains, placement of bur hole(s) with or without a subdural drain, and shunting. Shunt placement typically provides good long-term success (resolution of the subdural fluid), but comes with well-known early and late complications. Recently, the authors have used a mini-osteoplastic craniotomy technique with the goal of definitively treating these children with a single surgery while avoiding the many issues associated with a shunt. They describe their procedure and compare it with the traditional bur hole technique.
In this single-institution retrospective study, the authors evaluated 26 cases involving patients who underwent treatment for CSC. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were reviewed, including radiographic findings (density of the subdural fluid and ventricular and subarachnoid space size), neurological examination findings, and intraoperative fluid description. The primary outcome was treatment failure, defined as the patient requiring any subsequent surgical intervention after the index procedure (minicraniotomy or bur hole placement).
Fifteen patients (10 male and 5 female; median age 5.1 months) collectively underwent 27 minicraniotomy procedures (each procedure representing a hemisphere that was treated). In the bur hole group, there were 11 patients (6 male and 5 female; median age 4.6 months) with 18 hemispheres treated. Both groups had subdural drains placed. The average follow-up for each treatment group was just over 7 months. Treatment failure occurred in 2 patients (13%) in the minicraniotomy group compared with 5 patients (45%) in the bur hole group (p = 0.09). Furthermore, the 2 patients who had treatment failure in the minicraniotomy group required 1 subsequent surgery each, whereas the 5 in the bur hole group needed a total of 9 subsequent surgeries. Eventually, 80% of the patients in the minicraniotomy group and 70% of those in the bur hole group had resolution of the subdural collections on the last imaging study.
The minicraniotomy technique may be a superior technique for the treatment of CSCs in infants compared with bur hole evacuation. The minicraniotomy provides greater visualization of the subdural space and allows more aggressive evacuation of the fluid, better irrigation of the space, the ability to fenestrate any accessible membranes safely, and continued egress of fluid into the subgaleal space. Although this preliminary report has obvious limitations, evaluation of this technique may be worthy of a prospective, multiinstitutional collaborative effort.
Article: Commentary.Journal of neurosciences in rural practice. 07/2014; 5(3):309-10.
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is increasing, but optimal treatment remains controversial. Recent meta-analyses suggest burr hole (BH) drainage is the best treatment because it provides optimal balance between recurrence and morbidity. Mini-craniotomy may offer supplementary technical advantages while maintaining equal or better outcomes. This study investigates the outcome of mini-craniotomy as the sole treatment in patients with CSDH. We analyzed all patients operated on for CSDH with mini-craniotomy in our neurosurgical center between 2005-2010. Baseline patient characteristics (age, sex, comorbidities, imaging characteristics, known risk factors for development of CSDH and neurological examination at presentation) and outcomes (mortality, complications, recurrence and neurological examination at discharge) were recorded. One hundred twenty-six adult patients were included, mean age was 73.9 (range 18 to 95) years old, and the sex ratio (M:F) was 2:1. Eighty-four percent of the patients showed clinical improvement at discharge, as shown by a decrease in the Markwalder score postoperatively (with 57 % Markwalder 0 and 23 % Markwalder 1). Recurrence rate was 8.7 %. Overall complication rate was 34.1 % (27.8 % medical complications and 6.3 % surgical complications). In-hospital mortality was 13.5 % (8.7 % due to pulmonary infections and 1.6 % to surgical complications). Preoperative Markwalder grade correlated significantly with complication rate, as did the presence of a neurodegenerative disease (p = 0.018). Factors significantly related to mortality in univariate analysis were arterial hypertension (p = 0.038), heart failure (p = 0.02), renal failure (p = 0.017), neurodegenerative disease (p = 0.001), cerebrovascular accident (p = 0.008) and coagulopathy (p = 0.019). Multivariate analysis was not able to confirm any significant relationship. This is the first published series of CSDH in which all consecutive patients were operated on by mini-craniotomy. The invasiveness and complication rate of mini-craniotomy are equal to those of burr hole treatment, but visualization is superior, resulting in lower recurrences. A randomized controlled trial is indicated to identify the best surgical strategy for the treatment of CSDH.Acta Neurochirurgica 03/2014; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Subdural effusion (SDE) in an infant is a rare clinical scenario, which may be secondary to a variety of etiologies. Massive SDE is an extremely rare complication of head injury. It usually runs a self-limiting course. Though neurosurgical intervention is occasionally needed, different methods of surgical procedure for management includes burr-hole alone, burr-holes with subdural drain placement, twist drill craniotomy with drain and even craniotomy. The authors report a rare case of progressive massive SDE, which despite bilateral burr-hole placement and drainage failed and presented with visual deterioration and massive bulge of scalp at burr-hole sites producing rabbit ear sign in a 10 month old infant. Ultimately cystoperitoneal shunt was carried out in a desperate attempt to prevent impending rupture of scalp sutures at sites of previous burr-hole placement. Astonishingly not only complete resolution of hygroma, but visual recovery also took place. Patient is doing well at 6 months following shunt with regaining normal vision and appropriate developmental milestones. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of brain at last follow-up revealed mild ventriculomegaly with subduro-peritoneal shunt in situ and rest of brain was unremarkable. Such cases have not been reported in literature until date.Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences 09/2013; 8(3):235-8.