Epigenetic changes with dietary soy in cynomolgus monkeys.

Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 10/2011; 6(10):e26791. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026791
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nutritional interventions are important alternatives for reducing the prevalence of many chronic diseases. Soy is a good source of protein that contains isoflavones, including genistein and daidzein, and may alter the risk of obesity, Type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive cancers. We have shown previously in nonhuman primates that soy protein containing isoflavones leads to improved body weight, insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, and atherosclerosis compared to protein without soy isoflavones (casein), and does not increase the risk of cancer. Since genistein has been shown to alter DNA methylation, we compared the methylation profiles of cynomolgus monkeys, from multiple tissues, eating two high-fat, typical American diets (TAD) with similar macronutrient contents, with or without soy protein. DNA methylation status was successfully determined for 80.6% of the probes in at least one tissue using Illumina's HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. Overall methylation increased in liver and muscle tissue when monkeys switched from the TAD-soy to the TAD-casein diets. Genes involved in epigenetic processes, specifically homeobox genes (HOXA5, HOXA11, and HOXB1), and ABCG5 were among those that changed between diets. These data support the use of the HumanMethylation27 BeadChip in cynomolgus monkeys and identify epigenetic changes associated with dietary interventions with soy protein that may potentially affect the etiology of complex diseases.


Available from: Gregory A Hawkins, Jun 12, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip Array™ (Infinium 450K) is a robust and cost-efficient survey of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns. Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque) is an important disease model, however its genome sequence is only recently published and few tools exist to interrogate the molecular state of Cynomolgus macaque tissues. While the Infinium 450K is a hybridization array designed to the human genome, the relative conservation between the macaque and human genomes makes its use in macaques feasible. Here, we used the Infinium 450K array to assay DNA methylation in eleven macaque muscle biopsies. We showed that probe hybridization efficiency was related to the degree of sequence identity between the human probes and the macaque genome sequence. Approximately 61% of the Human Infinium 450K probes could be reliably mapped to the Cynomolgus macaque genome and contain a CpG site of interest. We also compared the Infinium 450K data to Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) data generated on the same samples and found a high level of concordance between the two independent methodologies, which can be further improved by filtering for probe sequence identity and mismatch location. We conclude that the Infinium 450K array can be used to measure the DNA methylome of Cynomolgus macaque tissues using the provided filters. We also provide a pipeline for validation of the array in other species using a simple BLAST-based sequence identify filter.
    G3-Genes Genomes Genetics 05/2014; 4(7). DOI:10.1534/g3.114.010967 · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma (NB) is a type of tumor usually found in children under 5 years of age, which originates from lesions in the nervous system and has fast growth and early transformation characteristics. Similar to other cancer types, some typical tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), such as P53 and CHD5 are silenced in NB because of high methylation at promoter zones. In the present study, our results showed that genistein, an element found in soy, is an epigenetic modifier able to decrease hypermethylation levels of CHD5, and enhances the expression of CHD5 as well as p53, possibly contributing to inhibition of NB growth in vivo and tumor microvessel formation. Furthermore, genistein acts as a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor to significantly decrease the expression of DNMT3b. Our study indicates that genistein plays an important role in inhibiting NB growth in vivo, probably preventing tumorigenesis risk as a kind of therapeutic agent for NB treatment in the future.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 11/2012; 30(5):1081-6. DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2012.1118 · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The term "epigenetics" refers to modifications in gene expression caused by heritable, but potentially reversible, changes in DNA methylation and chromatin structure. Epigenetic alterations have been identified as promising new targets for cancer prevention strategies as they occur early during carcinogenesis and represent potentially initiating events for cancer development. Over the past few years, nutri-epigenetics - the influence of dietary components on mechanisms influencing the epigenome - has emerged as an exciting new field in current epigenetic research. During carcinogenesis, major cellular functions and pathways, including drug metabolism, cell cycle regulation, potential to repair DNA damage or to induce apoptosis, response to inflammatory stimuli, cell signalling, and cell growth control and differentiation become deregulated. Recent evidence now indicates that epigenetic alterations contribute to these cellular defects, for example epigenetic silencing of detoxifying enzymes, tumor suppressor genes, cell cycle regulators, apoptosis-inducing and DNA repair genes, nuclear receptors, signal transducers and transcription factors by promoter methylation, and modifications of histones and non-histone proteins such as p53, NF-κB, and the chaperone HSP90 by acetylation or methylation.The present review will summarize the potential of natural chemopreventive agents to counteract these cancer-related epigenetic alterations by influencing the activity or expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone modifying enzymes. Chemopreventive agents that target the epigenome include micronutrients (folate, retinoic acid, and selenium compounds), butyrate, polyphenols from green tea, apples, coffee, black raspberries, and other dietary sources, genistein and soy isoflavones, curcumin, resveratrol, dihydrocoumarin, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), lycopene, anacardic acid, garcinol, constituents of Allium species and cruciferous vegetables, including indol-3-carbinol (I3C), diindolylmethane (DIM), sulforaphane, phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), phenylhexyl isothiocyanate (PHI), diallyldisulfide (DADS) and its metabolite allyl mercaptan (AM), cambinol, and relatively unexplored modulators of histone lysine methylation (chaetocin, polyamine analogs). So far, data are still mainly derived from in vitro investigations, and results of animal models or human intervention studies are limited that demonstrate the functional relevance of epigenetic mechanisms for health promoting or cancer preventive efficacy of natural products. Also, most studies have focused on single candidate genes or mechanisms. With the emergence of novel technologies such as next-generation sequencing, future research has the potential to explore nutri-epigenomics at a genome-wide level to understand better the importance of epigenetic mechanisms for gene regulation in cancer chemoprevention.
    Topics in current chemistry 09/2012; 329. DOI:10.1007/128_2012_360 · 4.61 Impact Factor