Parathyroid Carcinoma: A Review with Three Illustrative Cases

1. Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Free University of Brussels. Jules Bordet institute, 1000 Brussels, Belgium.
Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 3.27). 10/2011; 2:532-7.
Source: PubMed


Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease, which accounts for less than 1% of all case of primary hyperparathyroidism and is usually not detected until the time of surgery or thereafter. For most patients preoperative staging is not available. A radical excision remains the standard management; the place of adjuvant radiotherapy is not well established yet. Local recurrence and/or the metastases are unfortunately frequent. The present paper presents an up to date review of the literature illustrated by three clinical cases.

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Available from: Marc Lemort, Sep 30, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy, accounting for less than 1% of cases of primary hyperparathyroidism. Patient-related factors such as age and sex, as well as the biological features and management of the cancer, influence mid-term and long-term survival. We report a case of a young man with an unusual presentation of parathyroid carcinoma. The patient presented with left thigh swelling, which had been present for 6 months without other symptoms of hypercalcemia. On computed tomography scan a hypodense lesion, 30 x 20 x 20 mm in size, was seen in the posterior thyroid. There was no evidence of cervical lymphadenopathy or local infiltration. On a Sestamibi scan, a hot spot was seen in the lower pole of left thyroid lobe. Cervical neck exploration was performed. The patient subsequently underwent surgery and a parathyroid tumor was excised. The tumor was adherent to the thyroid capsule, but there was no evidence of invasion. After surgery, the patient's calcium and parathyroid hormone levels normalized, but histology confirmed parathyroid carcinoma with capsular and vascular invasion. The patient was offered reoperation, but declined, and developed recurrent parathyroid carcinoma 2 years later. In this report, we aim to present the challenges in managing parathyroid carcinoma and discuss factors that might contribute to future locoregional recurrences. This case also highlighted several issues, including the challenge of ascertaining the diagnosis before surgery and the dilemma of reoperation after simple excision.
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    ABSTRACT: Parathyroid carcinoma is a very rare malignancy. It has been associated with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome, familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) and 2A (MEN-2A) syndromes. We report a 54-year-old man with a MEN-2A which presents with a nonfunctional metastatic parathyroid carcinoma and a pheochromocytoma in the absence of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Only a few cases of parathyroid carcinoma have been reported in the literature associated with this syndrome.
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    ABSTRACT: Today, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is frequently diagnosed at an asymptomatic stage. New international guidelines presented at the Endocrine Society congress update the management of this disease. Normocalcemic PHPT is part of the diagnostic spectrum of PHPT, its natural history is poorly known, and monitoring is proposed once secondary HPT has been eliminated. Bone involvement, classically predominant in cortical bone, also affects trabecular bone. Osteodensitometry is poorly effective at the vertebral level and new methods (trabecular bone score [TBS], vertebral fracture assessment [VFA]) should improve the assessment of the risk of fracture. The kidney is the most frequently symptomatic organ, and an imaging workup as well as urinary tests are recommended in all patients when searching for causes of lithiasis or nephrocalcinosis. More than 10% of PHPT cases are related to a germinal mutation: these patients should be identified to optimize their management and that of their relatives. Medical treatment is reserved for patients for whom surgery is not indicated or possible: cinacalcet is effective for calcemia, the bisphosphonates are effective for bone involvement. Vitamin D deficiency can be corrected as long as calcemia and creatinuria are monitored. Surgical treatment is recommended in case of pronounced hypercalcemia, bone or renal involvement, and age less than 50 years and in patients in whom monitoring is refused or impossible. Studies have shown that asymptomatic PHPT evolves little in monitored patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
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