Regulation of Retinoblastoma Protein (Rb) by p21 Is Critical for Adaptation to Massive Small Bowel Resection

Division of Pediatric Surgery, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Department of Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.8). 01/2012; 16(1):148-55; discussion 155. DOI: 10.1007/s11605-011-1747-8
Source: PubMed


Adaptation following massive intestinal loss is characterized by increased villus height and crypt depth. Previously, we demonstrated that p21-null mice do not adapt after small bowel resection (SBR). As retinoblastoma protein (Rb) levels are elevated in p21-null crypt cells, we first sought to determine whether Rb is required for normal adaptation. Next, we tested whether Rb expression is responsible for blocked adaptation in p21-nulls.
Genetically manipulated mice and wild-type (WT) littermates underwent either 50% SBR or sham operation. The intestine was harvested at 3, 7, or 28 days later and intestinal adaptation was evaluated. Enterocytes were isolated and protein levels evaluated by Western blot and quantified by optical density.
Rb-null mice demonstrated increased villus height, crypt depth, and proliferative rate at baseline, but there was no further increase following SBR. Deletion of one Rb allele lowered Rb expression and restored resection-induced adaptation responses in p21-null mice.
Rb is specifically required for resection-induced adaptation. Restoration of adaptation in p21-null mice by lowering Rb expression suggests a crucial mechanistic role for Rb in the regulation of intestinal adaptation by p21.

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    • "No prior studies have reported the effects of IGF2 administration in the context of SBR. Previously, we showed that when Retinoblastoma (Rb) is deleted specifically in the intestine, villus height is markedly increased [9] [10] [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Enhanced structural features of resection-induced intestinal adaptation have been demonstrated following the administration of multiple different growth factors and peptides. Among these, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has been considered to be significant. In this study, we employ mutant mouse strains to directly test the contribution of IGF2 and its enterocyte receptor (IGF1R) toward the adaptation response to massive small bowel resection (SBR). Methods IGF2-knockout (IGF2-KO) (n = 8) and intestine specific IGF1R-knockout mice (IGF1R-IKO) (n = 9) and their wild type (WT) littermates (n = 5, n = 7, respectively) underwent 50% proximal SBR. At post-operative day 7, structural adaptation was measured as crypt depth and villus height. Rates of enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis were also recorded. Results The successful deletion of IGF2 and IGF1R expression in the enterocytes was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Normal adaptation occurred in both IGF2-KO and IGF1R-IKO mice after 50% SBR. Post-operative rates of proliferation and apoptosis in both IGF2-KO and IGF1R-IKO mice were no different than their respective controls. Conclusion IGF2 and functional IGF1R signaling in enterocytes are both dispensable for resection-induced adaptation responses. The mechanism for IGF-stimulation of intestinal adaptation may involve other ligands or cellular compartments within the intestine.
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    ABSTRACT: Adaptation is an important compensatory response to environmental cues resulting in enhanced survival. In the gut, the abrupt loss of intestinal length is characterized by increased rates of enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis and culminates in adaptive villus and crypt growth. In the development of an academic pediatric surgical career, adaptation is also an important compensatory response to survive the ever changing research, clinical, and economic environment. The ability to adapt in both situations is critical for patients and a legacy of pediatric surgical contributions to advance our knowledge of multiple conditions and diseases.
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated a hyperplastic phenotype when Rb expression was disrupted within the intestinal epithelium. These findings mimic resection-induced adaptation suggesting a possible mechanistic role for Rb during adaptation. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate a mechanism for how Rb deficiency induces intestinal hyperplasia. Enterocytes isolated from intestine-specific Rb knockout mice (Rb-IKO) underwent a microarray to elucidate their gene expression profile. IGF2 expression was significantly elevated, which was subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR and in situ mRNA hybridization. Mice with deficient expression of IGF2 or its receptor IGF1R were therefore crossed with Rb-IKO mice to determine the significance of IGF2 in mediating the Rb-IKO intestinal phenotype. Expression of IGF2 was significantly elevated in villus enterocytes of Rb-IKO mice. The mucosal hyperplasia in Rb-IKO mice was reversed when either IGF2 or IGF1R expression was genetically disrupted in Rb-IKO mice. IGF-2 expression is significantly elevated in villus enterocytes and is required for the hyperplastic intestinal mucosal phenotype of Rb-IKO mice. The trophic effects of IGF2 require intact IGF1R signaling within the intestinal epithelium. These findings reveal novel regulatory roles for Rb in expanding intestinal mucosal surface area.
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