Polysomnography reveals unexpectedly high rates of organic sleep disorders in patients with prediagnosed primary insomnia.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: It is a matter of debate whether patients with primary insomnia require a polysomnographic examination in order to exclude specific sleep disorders such as sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) or periodic limb movements (PLM). Using a prospective design, we investigated the prevalence of organic sleep disorders by means of polysomnography (PSG) in a series of patients who were previously diagnosed with primary insomnia. This diagnosis was based on a clinical exam and an ambulatory monitoring device or previous PSG. METHODS: Seventy-seven women and 16 men (mean age 55.12 ± 13.21 years) who were admitted for cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia were evaluated by PSG including cardiorespiratory parameters and tibialis EMG. Among them, 50 patients had undergone a clinical exam by a sleep specialist; in 18 patients, actigraphy or portable monitoring had been performed to exclude SAS or PLM; 25 patients had undergone PSG in another sleep lab previously. RESULTS: In 32 patients (34% of the sample), a PSG revealed a specific sleep disorder (SAS 16; PLMD 11; both 5), resulting in therapeutic consequences for 21 patients (SAS 10; PLMD 9; both 2). SAS and PLM patients were older and SAS patients had a higher body mass index than insomnia patients without additional findings. CONCLUSION: Indications for a PSG should be handled less restrictively in the diagnostic workup of older insomnia patients since they have a higher risk of comorbid sleep disorders even in the absence of the clinical signs of SAS or PLM.
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ABSTRACT: Sufficient evidence has accumulated to warrant conceptualization of comorbid insomnia and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) as a distinct clinical syndrome. As such, diagnostic and treatment approaches should be founded on an integrated and multidisciplinary approach with equivalent clinical attention and priority given to both insomnia and respiratory aspects of patients' presenting complaints. Several well established and effective treatments exist for both insomnia and SDB. Although questions of optimal treatment combination and sequence remain to be examined, current evidence provides preliminary guidance regarding the sequential or concurrent management of insomnia and sleep disordered breathing when comorbid. Unsatisfactory response to pharmacotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia should trigger evaluation for comorbid sleep-related breathing disturbance prior to more aggressive or off label pharmacotherapy. Presence and course of insomnia symptoms should be monitored closely in SDB patients with persistence of insomnia symptoms following SDB treatment prompting targeted treatment of insomnia. Aggressive treatment of insomnia prior to or in combination with SDB treatment may be particularly indicated in situations where insomnia is suspected to interfere with diagnosis or treatment of SDB. Insomnia and sleep disordered breathing appear to uniquely contribute to the morbidity of patients with this comorbidity. With this in mind, active engagement and monitoring of SDB and insomnia will often be necessary to achieve optimal outcomes.Current Treatment Options in Neurology 10/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of occult sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and describe the relationship between classic SDB symptoms (e.g., loud snoring) and occult SDB in older veterans with insomnia. We analyzed baseline survey and in-home sleep study data for 435 veterans (mean age = 72.0 years [SD 8.0]) who had no known history of SDB, met International Classification of Sleep Disorders 2(nd) Edition criteria for insomnia, and were enrolled in a behavioral intervention trial for insomnia. Variables of interest included apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, body mass index (BMI), insomnia subtype (i.e., onset, maintenance, or terminal), self-reported excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, and witnessed breathing pause items from the Berlin Questionnaire. We computed the frequency of AHI ≥ 15 and assessed whether each classic SDB symptom was associated with an AHI ≥ 15 in 4 separate multivariate logistic regression models. Prevalence of AHI ≥ 15 was 46.7%. Excessive daytime sleepiness (adjusted odds ratio 1.63, 95% CI 1.02, 2.60, p = 0.04), but not snoring loudness, snoring frequency, or witnessed breathing pauses was associated with occult SDB (AHI ≥ 15). Insomnia subtypes were not significantly associated with occult SDB (p > 0.38). In our sample of older veterans with insomnia, nearly half had occult SDB, which was characterized by reported excessive daytime sleepiness, but not loud or frequent snoring or witnessed breathing pauses. Insomnia subtype was unrelated to the presence of occult SDB. Fung CH; Martin JL; Dzierzewski JM; Jouldjian S; Josephson K; Park M; Alessi C. Prevalence and symptoms of occult sleep disordered breathing among older veterans with insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(11):1173-1178.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2013; 9(11):1173-8. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insomnia and daytime sleepiness are common complaints in Parkinson disease (PD), but the main causes remain unclear. We examined the potential impact of both motor and non-motor symptoms of PD on sleep problems. Patients with PD (n = 128) were assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Fatigue Severity Scale, Survey of Autonomic Symptoms, and the 39-item Parkinson Disease Questionnaire. A subset of subjects (n = 38, 30%) also completed nocturnal polysomnography and a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Multivariate stepwise logistic regression models revealed that subjective insomnia was independently associated with depressed mood (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.01-3.19]), autonomic symptoms (1.77 [1.08-2.90]), fatigue (1.19 [1.02-1.38]), and age (0.61 [0.39-0.96]). Subjective daytime sleepiness was associated with dosage of dopaminergic medication (1.74 [1.08-2.80]) and fatigue (1.14 [1.02-1.28]). On polysomnography, longer sleep latency correlated with autonomic symptoms (rho = 0.40, p = 0.01) and part I (non-motor symptoms) of the Unified PD Rating Scale (rho = 0.38, p = 0.02). Decreased sleep efficiency correlated with autonomic symptoms (rho = -0.42, p < 0.0001). However, no significant difference emerged on polysomnography and MSLTs between patients with or without insomnia or daytime sleepiness. Higher rates of apneic events did predict shorter sleep latencies on the MSLTs. Non-motor symptoms appear to be associated with subjective insomnia, whereas fatigue and dopaminergic medication are associated with subjective daytime sleepiness. Objective sleep laboratory data provided little insight into complaints of insomnia and sleepiness, though obstructive sleep apnea predicted worsened sleepiness when measured objectively. Chung S; Bohnen NI; Albin RL; Frey KA; Müller MLTM; Chervin RD. Insomnia and sleepiness in Parkinson disease: associations with symptoms and comorbidities. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(11):1131-1137.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2013; 9(11):1131-7. · 2.93 Impact Factor