Effect of one-year subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy on clinical and laboratory parameters in children with rhinitis and asthma: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy study.
ABSTRACT It has been reported that both sublingual (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) allergen-specific immunotherapy have clinical efficacy, yet there are rather few comparative placebo studies of children. We aimed to investigate the clinical and immunological efficacy of mite-specific SLIT and SCIT versus a placebo in rhinitis and asthma in children.
The outcomes of this 1-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy study were symptom and medication scores, visual analog scores (VAS), titrated skin prick tests, nasal and bronchial allergen provocation doses, serum house dust mite-specific immunglobulin E (HDM-sIgE), sIgG4, IL-10 and IFN-γ levels.
Clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated in 30 patients. SCIT significantly diminished symptom and medication scores for rhinitis and asthma (p = 0.03 and p = 0.05 for rhinitis; p = 0.01 and p = 0.05 for asthma) and VAS. SLIT also reduced VAS, symptoms associated with rhinitis and asthma as well as medication usage for rhinitis, but this reduction was not significant when compared with the placebo. Skin reactivitiy to HDM and HDM-sIgE levels was reduced significantly in both immunotherapy groups. Serum IL-10 levels and nasal provocative doses increased significantly with both SCIT and SLIT. Nasal eosinophil increments after nasal challenge decreased with two treatment modes, but bronchial provocative doses and sputum eosinophil increments after bronchial challenge were reduced only with SCIT. In both treatment arms, there was no change in IFN-γ levels. Serum sIgG4 levels increased significantly only in the SCIT group.
Based on the limited number of patients at the end of the 1-year immunotherapy, the clinical efficacy of SCIT on rhinitis and asthma symptoms was more evident when compared with the placebo.
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ABSTRACT: Although allergen-specific sublingual (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) have been demonstrated to be clinically effective with similar immunological responses, head-to-head studies comparing those two modes of allergen administration in terms of onset of clinical improvement along with simultaneous immunological responses and underlying mechanisms of preventive effect are scarce. The present review will update current data on this issue. Compared with SLIT, SCIT provides a rapid onset of clinical improvement by eliciting a simultaneous surge in production of T helper 1 (Th1) and T regulatory cell (Treg) cytokines and blocking antibodies. Similar immunological and clinical responses are evoked quite later, with no effect on Immunoglobulin G (IgG)4 levels during SLIT. Increases in TGFβ secretion due to nonrelevant allergens during SLIT may explain the preventive effect on new sensitizations. SLIT and SCIT are both clinically effective in the treatment of respiratory allergic diseases with slight differences in the early phase in terms of onset of clinical efficacy and simultaneous immunological responses. Both SLIT and SCIT induce similar T-cell responses in time, but specific IgG4-blocking antibody responses are more prevalent following SCIT. Further head-to-head studies addressing the preventive effect of monotherapy and the efficacy and immunological responses of nonrelated multiallergen immunotherapy in polysensitized patients are warranted.Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 09/2012; 12(6):640-7. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Asthma and rhinitis are commonly associated and they influence their respective control. New observations have contributed to better understand how to assess those conditions and how they influence each other. Recent studies found that not only the intensity, but also the duration of rhinitis could be correlated with the development of asthma and possibly its remission. The measure of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has been used to show the presence of lower airway inflammation in rhinitic patients, with or without asthma. Furthermore, it has been shown that allergic rhinitis could affect asthma control in children as in adults, and consequently suggested that allergic rhinitis and asthma should be concomitantly approached in regard to their diagnosis and treatment. Additional observations showed improvements in various asthma outcomes with the treatment of rhinitis. These new data confirm the strong link between asthma and rhinitis, the importance of their interactions, and the need to identify and treat rhinitis adequately in asthmatic patients.Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 08/2012; 12(5):449-54. · 3.40 Impact Factor