Article

Late-Life Social Activity and Cognitive Decline in Old Age

Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (Impact Factor: 3.01). 11/2011; 17(6):998-1005. DOI: 10.1017/S1355617711000531
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We examined the association of social activity with cognitive decline in 1138 persons without dementia at baseline with a mean age of 79.6 (SD = 7.5) who were followed for up to 12 years (mean = 5.2; SD = 2.8). Using mixed models adjusted for age, sex, education, race, social network size, depression, chronic conditions, disability, neuroticism, extraversion, cognitive activity, and physical activity, more social activity was associated with less cognitive decline during average follow-up of 5.2 years (SD = 2.7). A one point increase in social activity score (range = 1-4.2; mean = 2.6; SD = 0.6) was associated with a 47% decrease in the rate of decline in global cognitive function (p < .001). The rate of global cognitive decline was reduced by an average of 70% in persons who were frequently socially active (score = 3.33, 90th percentile) compared to persons who were infrequently socially active (score = 1.83, 10th percentile). This association was similar across five domains of cognitive function. Sensitivity analyses revealed that individuals with the lowest levels of cognition or with mild cognitive impairment at baseline did not drive this relationship. These results confirm that more socially active older adults experience less cognitive decline in old age.

1 Follower
 · 
150 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article develops a new model for understanding the aging experience. Drawing upon aging literature from the chronological, biological, mental, and social aging perspectives, the model offered is an integrated perspective that provides better understanding of the relationship between chronological age and an individual's perceived age. The article provides evidence of ways that consumers are trying to "time bend" and change today's perceived reality of aging. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for the health care industry and provides examples of how some businesses seem to already be looking at aging and health related issues through this lens.
    Health Marketing Quarterly 11/2014; 31(4):383-98. DOI:10.1080/07359683.2014.966010
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Based on growing findings of brain volume loss and deleterious white matter alterations during the chronic stages of injury, researchers posit that moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) may act to “age” the brain by reducing reserve capacity and inducing neurodegeneration. Evidence that these changes correlate with poorer cognitive and functional outcomes corroborates this progressive characterization of chronic TBI. Borrowing from a framework developed to explain cognitive aging (Mahncke et al., Progress in Brain Research, 157, 81–109, 2006a; Mahncke et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(33), 12523– 12528, 2006b), we suggest here that environmental factors (specifically environmental impoverishment and cognitive disuse) contribute to a downward spiral of negative neuroplastic change that may modulate the brain changes described above. In this context, we review new literature supporting the original aging framework, and its extrapolation to chronic TBI. We conclude that negative neuroplasticity may be one of the mechanisms underlying cognitive and neural decline in chronic TBI, but that there are a number of points of intervention that would permit mitigation of this decline and better long-term clinical outcomes.
    Neuropsychology Review 12/2014; 24(4):409–427. DOI:10.1007/s11065-014-9273-6 · 5.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective. Cognitive impairment reduces quality of life and is related to vascular and neurodegenerative disorders. However, there is also a close relationship between these diseases and oxidative stress. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess whether inflammation and oxidative damage are associated with low cognitive performance in the elderly with different housing conditions. Methods. The study groups consisted of 32 institutionalized and 25 noninstitutionalized Brazilian elderly subjects. Oxidative damage, inflammation markers, and cognitive function were evaluated. Results. The results demonstrated pronounced oxidative stress in the institutionalized elderly group, which also had a lower antioxidant status compared to noninstitutionalized subjects. High levels of proinflammatory cytokines were also observed in the institutionalized elderly. Furthermore, the raised levels of inflammatory markers were correlated with increased oxidative stress, and both were associated with low cognitive performance. However, based on multiple linear regression analysis, oxidative stress appears to be the main factor responsible for the cognitive decline. Conclusions. The findings suggest that individuals with lower antioxidant status are more vulnerable to oxidative stress, which is associated with cognitive function, leading to reduced life quality and expectancy.
    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 01/2015; 2015:804198. DOI:10.1155/2015/804198 · 3.36 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
70 Downloads
Available from
Jun 2, 2014