Introduction of pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPV23) and conjugate vaccine (PCV7) programmes were expected to change the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumonia in the UK. We describe the epidemiology of IPD and hospitalization with pneumonia using high-quality surveillance data over an 8-year period, 2002-2009. Although PPV23 uptake increased from 49% to 70% and PCV7 uptake reached 98% by 2009, the overall incidence of IPD increased from 11.8/100 000 to 16.4/100 000 (P=0.13), and the incidence of hospitalization with pneumonia increased from 143/100 000 to 207/100 000 (P<0.001). Although a reduction in the proportion of IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes was observed, concurrent increases in PPV23 and non-vaccine serotype IPD contributed to an increased IPD burden overall. Marked inequalities in the geographical distribution of disease were observed. Existing vaccination programmes have, so far, not been sufficient to address an increasing burden of pneumococcal disease in our locality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bloodstream infection is associated with significant short-term mortality, but less is known about long-term outcome. We describe factors affecting mortality up to 3 years after bloodstream infection in a cohort of patients reviewed at the bedside by an infection specialist. Patients seen by the bacteraemia service of our infectious diseases department between June 2005 and November 2008 were included in analyses. Routine clinical data collected at the time of consultation, together with laboratory, demographic and outcome data were analysed to identify factors predicting death at 30 days and 3 years after bloodstream infection. Cox regression models for both time-points were constructed, together with Kaplan-Meier survival curves. In all, 322 bloodstream infections were recorded in 304 patients. The 30-day mortality was 15%, with a 3-year mortality of 49%. At 30 days after bacteraemia, in the Cox regression model, increasing age (p 0.003) and lower serum albumin (p 0.014) were predictive of death. At 3 years, age (p <0.0001) and albumin (p 0.004) remained significant predictors of death, with the presence of vascular disease (p 0.05) also significantly associated with mortality. If temperature was treated as a continuous variable then urea was significant (p 0.044); however, if temperature was categorized into hypothermia and non-hypothermia, then the presence of hypothermia (p 0.008) and chronic renal disease (p 0.034) became significant. There is an appreciable and gradual increase in mortality after an episode of bloodstream infection. Although many factors may not be amenable to intervention, patients at high risk of long-term mortality might require further follow up and assessment for potentially modifiable factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
We evaluated the effect of the infant 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) program on the serotype distribution in invasive pneumococcal disease in the Belgian population.
Serotyping was performed on 13,998 bacteraemic and pleural fluid isolates sent to the National Reference Laboratory between 2002 and 2010. We compared the distribution of serogroups (SGs) between the pre- (2002-2004) and post-PCV7 (2007-2010) era for children (<18 years), adults (18-59 years) and older individuals (≥60 years).
The proportion of cases caused by PCV7-SGs in subjects <18 years decreased from 69% pre-PCV7 to 26% post-PCV7 (p<0.005) and the majority of cases caused by PCV7-SGs were caused by SG 19. Post-PCV7, the prevalence of PCV7-SGs decreased from 38% to 29% and from 57% to 35% in subjects in the age groups 18-59 and ≥60 years, respectively (p<0.005). Post-PCV7 the prevalence of SGs 1, 7 and 19 increased significantly in subjects aged <18 years. The increase of SG19 was caused by an increase of serotype 19A in this age group (p<0.005). After the introduction of infant PCV7 the largest rise in prevalence occurred for SGs 7, 12 and 22 (p<0.005) in the two older age categories. Post PCV7, the overall PCV13 and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine coverage rates decreased from 85% to 69% and from 96% to 93%, respectively (p<0.005).
PCV7 has an impact on SG distribution of invasive pneumococcal disease isolates of vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects. SG replacement forms a major threat to the success of PCV7. PCV13, including several additional replacement serotypes (STs 1, 7F, 19A), represents an attractive alternative.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since implementation of infant immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), increased rates of pneumococcal pneumonia have been reported among adults. Using a cohort of mother-infant pairs identified from the General Practice Research Database in the UK we found that from 2006 to 2010 the annual incidence rate of pneumococcal pneumonia among mothers increased from 61/100,000 to 81/100,000. We identified 43 cases of pneumococcal pneumonia in mothers and 430 control mother-infant pairs. The conditional odds ratio of pneumococcal pneumonia in mothers whose infants received a three-dose series of PCV7 compared to mothers whose infants received zero, one, or two doses was 4.0 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.0-15.8), and 11.0 (95%CI: 1.2-98.6) when compared with mothers whose infants received no vaccinations. The incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia may have increased in mothers following the introduction of PCV7, possibly because mothers whose infants received PCV7 are at increased risk for pneumococcal pneumonia. Though there is a chance of bias inherent to observational studies, the study findings support close monitoring of adult pneumococcal disease and potential role of adult vaccination needs to be explored.
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