p53, a novel regulator of lipid metabolism pathways.
ABSTRACT In this study we aimed at characterizing the regulation of hepatic metabolic pathways by the p53 transcription factor.
Analysis of gene expression following alteration of p53 status in several human- and mouse-derived cells using microarray analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and reporter gene assays. A functional assay was performed to determine lipid transfer activity.
We identified a novel role for the p53 protein in regulating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, a process not yet conceived as related to p53, which is known mainly for its tumor suppressive functions. We revealed a group of 341 genes whose expression was induced by p53 in the liver-derived cell line HepG2. Twenty of these genes encode proteins involved in many aspects of lipid homeostasis. The mode of regulation of three representative genes (Pltp, Abca12, and Cel) was further characterized. In addition to HepG2, the genes were induced following activation of p53 in human primary hepatic cells isolated from liver donors. p53-dependent regulation of these genes was evident in other cell types namely Hep3B cells, mouse hepatocytes, and fibroblasts. Furthermore, p53 was found to bind to the genes' promoters in designated p53 responsive elements and thereby increase transcription. Importantly, p53 augmented the activity of secreted PLTP, which plays a major role in lipoprotein biology and atherosclerosis pathology.
These findings expose another facet of p53 functions unrelated to tumor suppression and render it a novel regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism and consequently of systemic lipid homeostasis and atherosclerosis development.
Article: p53 promotes the expression of gluconeogenesis- related genes and enhances hepatic glucose production[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background The p53 tumor suppressor protein is a transcription factor that initiates transcriptional programs aimed at inhibiting carcinogenesis. p53 represses metabolic pathways that support tumor development (such as glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)) and enhances metabolic pathways that are considered counter-tumorigenic such as fatty acid oxidation. Findings In an attempt to comprehensively define metabolic pathways regulated by p53, we performed two consecutive high-throughput analyses in human liver-derived cells with varying p53 statuses. A gene expression microarray screen followed by constraint-based modeling (CBM) predicting metabolic changes imposed by the transcriptomic changes suggested a role for p53 in enhancing gluconeogenesis (de novo synthesis of glucose). Examining glucogenic gene expression revealed a p53-dependent induction of genes involved in both gluconeogenesis (G6PC, PCK2) and in supplying glucogenic precursors (glycerol kinase (GK), aquaporin 3 (AQP3), aquaporin 9 (AQP9) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1 (GOT1)). Accordingly, p53 augmented hepatic glucose production (HGP) in both human liver cells and primary mouse hepatocytes. Conclusions These findings portray p53 as a novel regulator of glucose production. By facilitating glucose export, p53 may prevent it from being shunted to pro-cancerous pathways such as glycolysis and the PPP. Thus, our findings suggest a metabolic pathway through which p53 may inhibit tumorigenesis.Cancer & Metabolism. 02/2013;