Entecavir plus tenofovir combination as rescue therapy in pre-treated chronic hepatitis B patients: An international multicenter cohort study
ABSTRACT Long-term viral suppression is a major goal to prevent disease progression in patients with HBV. Aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of entecavir plus tenofovir combination in 57 CHB partial responders or multidrug resistant patients.
Investigator-initiated open-label cohort study. Quantitative HBV-DNA measurement and resistance testing (line-probe-assays and direct-sequencing) at baseline and every 3 months.
Fifty seven patients (37 HBeAg+), median age 45 years, previously treated with a median of three lines of antiviral therapy (range 1-6), 24/57 with advanced liver disease, were included. Median ALT at baseline was 1.0 ULN (range 0.3-22) and HBV-DNA 1.5 × 10(4)IU/ml (range 500-1 × 10(11)IU/ml). Median treatment duration of combination therapy was 21 months. HBV-DNA level dropped 3 logs (median, range 0-8 log; p<0.0001), 51/57 patients became HBV-DNA undetectable, median after 6 months (95% CI, 4.6-7). The probability for HBV DNA suppression was not reduced in patients with adefovir or entecavir resistance or in patients with advanced liver disease. Viral suppression led to decline in ALT (median 0.7 ULN; range 0.2-2.4; p=0.001). Five patients lost HBeAg (after 15, 18, 20, 21, and 27 months, respectively), one patient showed HBs-seroconversion. Patients with advanced disease did not show clinical decompensation, two patients with cirrhosis and undetectable HBV DNA developed HCCs. No death, newly induced renal impairment or lactic acidosis were reported.
Rescue therapy with entecavir and tenofovir in CHB patients harboring viral resistance patterns or showing only partial antiviral responses to preceding therapies was efficient, safe, and well tolerated in patients with and without advanced liver disease (249).
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ABSTRACT: The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major concern. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of entecavir (ETV) plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) combination therapy against MDR HBV. To adjust for differences in baseline characteristics, inverse probability weighting (IPW) using propensity scores for the entire cohort and weighted Cox proportional hazards models were applied. Ninety-three consecutive patients who were treated with ETV-TDF combination therapy for >6 months were included; at baseline, 45 were infected with HBV strains with genotypic resistance to lamivudine (LAM) and ETV (the LAM/ETV-R group), 28 to LAM and adefovir (ADV) (the LAM/ADV-R group), and 20 to LAM, ETV, and ADV (the LAM/ETV/ADV-R group). The median duration of rescue therapy was 13.0 (range, 6.7--31.7) months. Seventy-four out of 93 patients (79.6%) achieved complete virologic suppression, after a median 4.5 (95% confidence interval, 3.0--6.0) months. Cumulative probabilities of complete virologic suppression at month 6 were 63.6%: 55.7%, 75.0%, and 65.0% in the LAM/ETV-R, LAM/ADV-R, and LAM/ETV/ADV-R groups, respectively. During the treatment period, these probabilities were not significantly different across the resistance profiles before and after IPW (P=0.072 and P=0.510, respectively). In multivariate analysis, a lower baseline HBV DNA level, but not resistance profiles, was an independent predictor of complete virologic suppression. Renal dysfunction was not observed during the treatment period. In conclusion, rescue therapy with ETV-TDF combination is efficient and safe in patients infected with MDR HBV strains regardless of the antiviral drug resistance profiles.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 08/2014; 58(11). DOI:10.1128/AAC.03845-14 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) leads to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and/or chronic liver failure. Despite extensive research, the immunopathogenesis is not completely understood. Viral persistence and clinical outcomes following HBV infection depend on viral factors and host factors; including genetic factors that determine a host's immune mechanisms. The primary goal of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is to eradicate HBV or to at least maintain suppression of HBV replication. Despite recent advances in anti-viral agents for chronic HBV infection, complete eradication of the virus has been difficult to achieve. Agents for the treatment of CHB are divided mainly into two groups: immunomodulating agents and antiviral nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). Although NAs are safe, effective and easily administered orally, their long-term use poses the risk of drug resistance. Currently, international evidence-based guidelines have been developed to support physicians in managing CHB patients. However, treatment of patients with drug resistance is still challenging, as only a few classes of anti-HBV drugs are available and cross-resistance between drugs can occur. In addition, as the currently available genotypic test for detection of drug resistance still has limitations in identifying the different substitutions present in the same viral genome, the development of a new virologic test to overcome this limitation is necessary. Among the predictive factors associated with response to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) therapy, hepatitis B surface antigen quantification is considered to be a surrogate marker for monitoring response to PEG-IFN. Current practice guidelines stress the importance of profound and durable HBV viral suppression in the treatment of CHB patients. To this end, it is essential to choose a potent antiviral drug with a low risk of resistance for initial treatment of CHB to achieve sustained virological response. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the immunopathogenesis of HBV and currently available and developing treatment strategies against HBV infection.
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ABSTRACT: The efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients following prior treatment failure with multiple nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) is not well defined, especially in Asian populations. In this study we investigated the efficacy and safety of TDF rescue therapy in CHB patients after multiple NA treatment failure. The study retrospectively analyzed 52 CHB patients who experienced failure with two or more NAs and who were switched to regimens containing TDF. The efficacy and safety assessments included hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA undetectability, hepatitis B envelop antigen (HBeAg) seroclearance, alanine transaminase (ALT) normalization and changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus levels. The mean HBV DNA level at baseline was 5.4 ± 1.76 log10 IU/mL. At a median duration of 34.5 months of TDF treatment, the cumulative probabilities of achieving complete virological response (CVR) were 25.0%, 51.8%, 74.2%, and 96.7% at 6, 12, 24, and 48 months, respectively. HBeAg seroclearance occurred in seven of 48 patients (14.6%). ALT levels were normalized in 27 of 31 patients (87.1%) with elevated ALT at baseline. Lower levels of HBV DNA at baseline were significantly associated with increased CVR rates (p < 0.001). However, CVR rates did not differ between TDF monotherapy or combination therapy with other NAs, and were not affected by mutations associated with resistance to NAs. No significant adverse events were observed. TDF is an efficient and safe rescue therapy for CHB patients after treatment failure with multiple NAs.The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 01/2015; 30(1):32-41. DOI:10.3904/kjim.2015.30.1.32