The gap-junction inhibitor carbenoxolone suppresses the differentiation of Th17 cells through inhibition of IL-23 expression in antigen presenting cells.
ABSTRACT Carbenoxolone (CBX) is a widely used gap-junction inhibitor. We have previously shown that treatment with CBX significantly delayed the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the mechanism by which CBX delays the onset of EAE remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that CBX specifically inhibits the production of IL-23 by dendritic cells (DCs) and microglia in vitro. CBX treatment significantly reduced the population of Th17 cells in EAE mice. Furthermore, CBX downregulated the expression of IL-23 p19 via increased production of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Thus, CBX may be an effective therapeutic strategy against Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.
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ABSTRACT: Our previous studies have demonstrated that application of the inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO) to the tooth pulp produces trigeminal central sensitization that includes increases in mechanoreceptive field size and responses to noxious stimuli and decrease in activation threshold in brainstem nociceptive neurons of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (the medullary dorsal horn, MDH). The aim of the present study was to test if central noradrenergic processes are involved in the central sensitization of MDH neurons and if 1-adrenoceptors or 2-adrenoceptors or both are involved. In urethane/α-chloralose anesthetized rats, the activity of extracellularly recorded and functionally identified single nociceptive neurons in the MDH was studied. Continuous intrathecal (i.t.) superfusion of the adrenergic modulator guanethidine and -adrenoceptor blocker phentolamine or selective 1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin over the medulla strongly attenuated all three MO-induced parameters of central sensitization in the MDH nociceptive neurons, compared to phosphate-buffered saline (as vehicle control). In contrast, i.t. superfusion of the selective 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine had little effect on the mechanoreceptive field expansion and the decreased mechanical activation threshold, and indeed facilitated responses to noxious stimuli of sensitized nociceptive neurons. Superfusion of each of the four chemicals alone did not affect baseline nociceptive neuronal properties. These findings provide the first documentation of the involvement of central noradrenergic processes in MDH in the development of the central sensitization, and that 1- and 2-adrenoceptors may be differentially involved.Neuroscience 01/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gap junctions (GJs) enable intercellular communication between adjacent cells through channels of connexins. Using a three-dimensional construct, we previously showed that endothelial and tumor cells formed GJs, allowing melanoma-specific T lymphocytes to recognize and kill melanoma-derived endothelial cells. We demonstrate here on histological sections of melanoma biopsies that GJ formation occurs in vivo between tumor and endothelial cells and between T lymphocytes and target cells. We also show an in vitro increase of GJ formation in melanoma and endothelial cells following dacarbazin and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment or hypoxic stress induction. Our data indicate that although connexin 43 (Cx43), the main GJ protein of the immune system, was localized at the immunological synapse between T lymphocyte and autologous melanoma cells, its over-expression or inhibition of GJs does not interfere with cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone lytic function. In contrast, we showed that inhibition of GJs by oleamide during stimulation of resting PBMCs with Melan-A natural and analog peptides resulted in a decrease in antigen (Ag) specific CD8(+) T lymphocyte induction. These Ag-specific CD8(+) cells displayed paradoxically stronger reactivity as revealed by CD107a degranulation and IFN-γ secretion. These findings indicate that Cx43 does not affect lytic function of differentiated CTL, but reveal a major role for GJs in the regulation of antigen CD8(+)-naïve T lymphocyte activation. KEY MESSAGE: GJ formation occurs in vivo between T lymphocytes and tumor cells Cx43 localized at the immunological synapse between T and autologous melanoma cells Inhibition of GJs resulted in a decrease in Ag-specific CD8(+) T lymphocyte induction A role for GJs in the regulation of antigen CD8(+)-naïve T lymphocyte activation.Journal of Molecular Medicine 06/2013; · 4.77 Impact Factor