Treatment of knee cartilage defect in 2010.

Service de chirurgie orthopédique, HIA Bégin, 69, avenue de Paris, 94160 Saint-Mandé, France.
Orthopaedics & Traumatology Surgery & Research (Impact Factor: 1.17). 12/2011; 97(8 Suppl):S140-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.otsr.2011.09.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Treatment of knee cartilage defect, a true challenge, should not only reconstruct hyaline cartilage on a long-term basis, but also be able to prevent osteoarthritis. Osteochondral knee lesions occur in either traumatic lesions or in osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). These lesions can involve all the articular surfaces of the knee in its three compartments. In principle, this review article covers symptomatic ICRS grade C or D lesions, depth III and IV, excluding management of superficial lesions, asymptomatic lesions that are often discovered unexpectedly, and kissing lesions, which arise prior to or during osteoarthritis. For clarity sake, the international classifications used are reviewed, for both functional assessment (ICRS and functional IKDC for osteochondral fractures, Hughston for osteochondritis) and morphological lesion evaluations (the ICRS macroscopic evaluation for fractures, the Bedouelle or SOFCOT for osteochondritis, and MOCART for MRI). The therapeutic armamentarium to treat these lesions is vast, but accessibility varies greatly depending on the country and the legislation in effect. Many comparative studies have been conducted, but they are rarely of high scientific quality; the center effect is nearly constant because patients are often referred to certain centers for an expert opinion. The indications defined herein use algorithms that take into account the size of the cartilage defect and the patient's functional needs for cases of fracture and the vitality, stability, and size of the fragment for cases of osteochondritis dissecans. Fractures measuring less than 2 cm(2) are treated with either microfracturing or mosaic osteochondral grafting, between 2 and 4 cm(2) with microfractures covered with a membrane or a culture of second- or third-generation chondrocytes, and beyond this size, giant lesions are subject to an exceptional allografting procedure, harvesting from the posterior condyle, or chondrocyte culture on a 3D matrix to restore volume. Cases of stable osteochondritis dissecans with closed articular cartilage can be simply monitored or treated with perforation in cases of questionable vitality. Cases of open joint cartilage are treated with a PLUS fixation if their vitality is preserved; if not, they are treated comparably to osteochondral fractures, with the type of filling depending on the defect size.

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Our purpose was to examine the Level I and II evidence for the use of osteochondral cylinder transfer technique (OCT) for cartilage repair. Methods A literature search was carried out for Level I and II evidence studies on cartilage repair using the PubMed database. All the studies that involved OCT were identified. Only Level I and II studies that compared OCT to other modalities of treatment such as microfracture (MF) and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) were selected. Results A total of 8 studies matched the selection criteria with 2 Level I and 6 Level II studies. Four studies compared OCT with MF, 3 compared OCT with ACI, and one compared all 3 techniques. Of 3 studies, 4 came from a single center. Mean age of patients ranged from 24 to 33 years, and mean follow-up ranged from 9 to 124 months. The studies from the single center showed superior results from OCT over MF, especially in younger patients, with one study having long-term follow-up of 10 years. They also showed an earlier return to sports. The size of the lesions were small (average < 3 cm2). The 4 other independent studies did not show any difference between OCT and ACI, with one study showing inferior outcome in the OCT group. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed good osseous integration of the osteochondral plugs to the subchondral bone. Histologic examination showed that there was hyaline cartilage in the transplanted osteochondral plugs but no hyaline cartilage between the plugs. Conclusions From the studies of a single center, OCT had an advantage over MF in younger patients with small chondral lesions. Comparison of outcomes between OCT and ACI showed no significant difference in 2 studies and contrasting results in another 2 studies. There was insufficient evidence for long-term results for OCT. Level of Evidence Level II, systematic review of Level I and II studies.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 04/2014; 30(4):497–505. DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2013.12.023 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteochondral defects affect both the articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone, but poor osteochondral regeneration is still a daunting challenge. Although the tissue engineering technology provides a promising approach for osteochondral repair, an ideal biphasic scaffold is in high demand with regards to proper biomechanical strength. In this study, an oriented poly( L -lacticacid)- co -poly( ε -caprolactone) P(LLA-CL)/collagen type I(Col-I) nanofiber yarn mesh, fabricated by dynamic liquid electrospinning served as a skeleton for a freeze-dried Col-I/ Hhyaluronate (HA) chondral phase(SPONGE) to enhance the mechanical strength of the scaffold. In vitro results show that the Yarn Col-I/HA hybrid scaffold (Yarn-CH) can allow the cell infiltration like sponge scaffolds. Using porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as the osseous phase, the Yarn-CH/TCP biphasic scaffold was then assembled by freeze drying. After combination of BMSCs, the biphasic complex was successfully used to repair the osteochondral defects in a rabbit model with greatly improved repairing scores and compressive modulus.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 04/2014; DOI:10.1002/jbm.a.35206 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteochondral autologous transplantation is frequently used to repair small cartilage defects. Incongruence between the osteochondral graft surface and the adjacent cartilage leads to changed friction and contact pressure. The present study wanted to analyze the differences between intact and surgically treated cartilage surface in respect to contact pressure and frictional characteristic (dissipated energy). Six ovine carpometacarpal joints were used in the present study. Dissipated energy during instrumentally controlled joint movement as well as static contact pressure were measured in different cartilage states (intact, defect, deep-, flush-, high-implanted osteochondral graft and cartilage failure simulation on a high-implanted graft). The best contact area restoration was observed after the flush implantation. However, the dissipated energy measurements did not reveal an advantage of the flush implantation compared to the defect and deep-implanted graft states. The high-implanted graft was associated with a significant increase of the mean contact pressure and decrease of the contact area but the dissipated energy was on the level of intact cartilage in contrast to other treatments where the dissipated energy was significantly higher as in the intact state. However the cartilage failure simulation on the high-implanted graft showed the highest increase of the dissipated energy.
    Medical Engineering & Physics 07/2014; 36(9). DOI:10.1016/j.medengphy.2014.06.015 · 1.84 Impact Factor

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