Rapid Maxillary Anterior Teeth Retraction En Masse by Bone Compression: A Canine Model

Harvard Medical School, United States of America
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 10/2011; 6(10):e26398. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026398
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The present study sought to establish an animal model to study the feasibility and safety of rapid retraction of maxillary anterior teeth en masse aided by alveolar surgery in order to reduce orthodontic treatment time.
Extraction of the maxillary canine and alveolar surgery were performed on twelve adult beagle dogs. After that, the custom-made tooth-borne distraction devices were placed on beagles' teeth. Nine of the dogs were applied compression at 0.5 mm/d for 12 days continuously. The other three received no force as the control group. The animals were killed in 1, 14, and 28 days after the end of the application of compression.
The tissue responses were assessed by craniometric measurement as well as histological examination. Gross alterations were evident in the experimental group, characterized by anterior teeth crossbite. The average total movements of incisors within 12 days were 4.63±0.10 mm and the average anchorage losses were 1.25±0.12 mm. Considerable root resorption extending into the dentine could be observed 1 and 14 days after the compression. But after consolidation of 28 days, there were regenerated cementum on the dentine. There was no apparent change in the control group. No obvious tooth loosening, gingival necrosis, pulp degeneration, or other adverse complications appeared in any of the dogs.
This is the first experimental study for testing the technique of rapid anterior teeth retraction en masse aided by modified alveolar surgery. Despite a preliminary animal model study, the current findings pave the way for the potential clinical application that can accelerate orthodontic tooth movement without many adverse complications.
It may become a novel method to shorten the clinical orthodontic treatment time in the future.

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