A Component of Retinal Light Adaptation Mediated by the Thyroid Hormone Cascade

Neurobiology Sector, International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste, Italy.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 10/2011; 6(10):e26334. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026334
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Analysis with DNA-microrrays and real time PCR show that several genes involved in the thyroid hormone cascade, such as deiodinase 2 and 3 (Dio2 and Dio3) are differentially regulated by the circadian clock and by changes of the ambient light. The expression level of Dio2 in adult rats (2-3 months of age) kept continuously in darkness is modulated by the circadian clock and is up-regulated by 2 fold at midday. When the diurnal ambient light was on, the expression level of Dio2 increased by 4-8 fold and a consequent increase of the related protein was detected around the nuclei of retinal photoreceptors and of neurons in inner and outer nuclear layers. The expression level of Dio3 had a different temporal pattern and was down-regulated by diurnal light. Our results suggest that DIO2 and DIO3 have a role not only in the developing retina but also in the adult retina and are powerfully regulated by light. As the thyroid hormone is a ligand-inducible transcription factor controlling the expression of several target genes, the transcriptional activation of Dio2 could be a novel genomic component of light adaptation.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies in humans and in animal models show negative correlations between thyroid hormone (TH) levels and longevity. TH signaling is implicated in maintaining and integrating metabolic homeostasis at multiple levels, notably centrally in the hypothalamus but also in peripheral tissues. The question is thus raised of how TH signaling is modulated during aging in different tissues. Classically, TH actions on mitochondria and heat production are obvious candidates to link negative effects of TH to aging. Mitochondrial effects of excess TH include reactive oxygen species and DNA damage, 2 factors often considered as aging accelerators. Inversely, caloric restriction, which can retard aging from nematodes to primates, causes a rapid reduction of circulating TH, reducing metabolism in birds and mammals. However, many other factors could link TH to aging, and it is these potentially subtler and less explored areas that are highlighted here. For example, effects of TH on membrane composition, inflammatory responses, stem cell renewal and synchronization of physiological responses to light could each contribute to TH regulation of maintenance of homeostasis during aging. We propose the hypothesis that constraints on TH signaling at certain life stages, notably during maturity, are advantageous for optimal aging.
    Endocrine reviews 05/2013; DOI:10.1210/er.2012-1056 · 19.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The co-morbidity of mood disturbance, in a proportion of patients, is now described across a wide range of chronic disease states. Similarly, a ‘Low Thyroid Syndrome’ is also reported in a proportion of individuals with chronic diseases. Here, we report on central changes in an animal model of inflammatory stress in which altered social behaviour, representing social disability, persists in a sub-group of rats following injury. We showed in an earlier study that rats with social disability following injury have significantly decreased peripheral thyroid hormones, with no increase in Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH). Only rats identified by behavioural change showed changes in hypothalamic gene expression. In whole hypothalamus extracted RNA, relative expression of mRNA for Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) was significantly down-regulated in disabled rats (p = 0.039) and deiodinase 3 up-regulated (p = 0.006) compared to controls. Specifically in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), numbers of immunoreactive cells for deiodinase 3-like and thyroid hormone receptor beta-like proteins were decreased in the sub-group with disability compared to the control group (p = 0.031 and p = 0.011 respectively). In rats with behavioural change post-injury, down-regulation of TRH provides an explanation for the failure of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to respond to the post-injury decrease in thyroxine. Decreased local expression of deiodinase 3 protein, resulting in a local increase in T3, offers an explanation for down regulation of TRH in the hypophysiotrophic TRH neurons. It is possible that, in a sub-group of animals identified behaviourally, a mechanism resulting in hypothalamic down-regulation of the HPT axis persists following inflammatory injury.
    Brain Research Bulletin 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2014.07.004 · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several previous studies have raised controversy over the functional role of neuroglobin (Ngb) in the retina. Certain studies indicate a significant impact of Ngb on retinal physiology, whereas others are conflicting. The present is an observational study that tested the effect of Ngb deficiency on gene expression in dark- and light-adapted mouse retinas. Large-scale gene expression profiling was performed using GeneChip(®) Mouse Exon 1.0 ST arrays and the results were compared to publicly available data sets. The lack of Ngb was found to have a minor effect on the light-induced retinal gene expression response. In addition, there was no increase in the expression of marker genes associated with hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum-stress and oxidative stress in the Ngb-deficient retina. By contrast, several genes were identified that appeared to be differentially expressed between the genotypes when the effect of light was ignored. The present study indicates that Ngb deficiency does not lead to major alternations in light-dependent gene expression response, but leads to subtle systemic differences of a currently unknown functional significance.
    11/2014; 2(6):780-786. DOI:10.3892/br.2014.364

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
May 29, 2014