Clinicopathologic features of advanced gallbladder cancer associated with adenomyomatosis

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Nabesima 5-1-1, Saga City, Saga 849-8501, Japan.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin (Impact Factor: 2.56). 12/2011; 459(6):573-80. DOI: 10.1007/s00428-011-1155-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder has not been considered to have malignant potential, but gross features of adenomyomatosis are sometimes encountered in gallbladders resected under a diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinicopathologic features and survival rates in cases of gallbladder cancer with gross features of adenomyomatosis. The study subjects were 97 surgically treated gallbladder carcinoma patients. Only gallbladder showing typical gross features of adenomyomatosis was judged as adenomyomatosis-positive gallbladder cancer. In terms of gross findings, 25 cases (25.8%) were classified as adenomyomatosis-positive. The status of adenomyomatosis was significantly associated with the T stage (P=0.0004), lymph node (LN) metastasis (P<0.0001), distant metastasis (P=0.008), and stage (P=0.0005). In the adenomyomatosis-positive group, 16 of the 25 cases (64.0%) were classified as segmental type and 9 cases (36.0%) were classified as fundal type. No diffuse-type cases were present in this series. The status of adenomyomatosis correlated significantly with survival (P=0.0007). However, the multivariate analysis of significant variables identified from the univariate analysis identified only T stage (P=0.0178) and LN metastasis (P=0.0048) as independent prognostic factors. Subset analysis with T stage according to the status of adenomyomatosis showed no significant impact on survival. These results indicate that adenomyomatosis-positive gallbladder cancer is more often diagnosed clinically in the advanced stages. Since preceding adenomyomatosis may prevent the early detection of gallbladder cancer, the usefulness of preventive cholecystectomy in cases of asymptomatic adenomyomatosis should be considered.

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to reveal differences in clinical diagnosis of gallbladder cancer among patients with or without adenomyomatosis (ADM) by analyzing demonstrated tumor patterns on imaging and diagnostic opportunities. Ninety-seven patients with gallbladder cancer were enrolled. Demonstrated imaging patterns were classified into mass lesion (ML), wall thickening (WT), and papillary lesion (PL). Clinical status during periodic follow up and other diagnostic opportunities were determined from medical records. All adenomyomatosis-associated cases were diagnosed at the T2 or higher stage. The distribution of demonstrated imaging patterns was significantly different between the adenomyomatosis-associated and non-adenomyomatosis-associated groups (p = 0.0002). No adenomyomatosis-associated gallbladder cancer had the PL pattern, which was readily identifiable and characteristic of early-stage cancer. The WT pattern presented difficulties for diagnosis, and the ML pattern was relatively specific, although most of these cases were at advanced stages. Approximately 40 % of ADM patients were found to be in advanced stages of gallbladder cancer, in spite of undergoing periodic follow up. This study revealed the difficulty of early diagnosis of primary gallbladder cancer in the setting of concurrent ADM. Current results suggest the possible utility of preventive cholecystectomy for management of asymptomatic ADM patients.
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    ABSTRACT: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) shows a marked geographical variation in its incidence. Middle-aged and elderly women are more commonly affected. Risk factors for its development include the presence of gallstones, chronic infection and pancreaticobiliary maljunction. Controversy remains in regard to the theory of carcinogenesis from adenomyomatosis, porcelain gallbladder and adenoma of the gallbladder. The surgical strategy and prognosis after surgery for GBC differ strikingly according to T-stage. Discrimination of favorable cases, particularly T2 or T3 lesions, is useful for the selection of surgical strategies for individual patients. Although many candidate factors predicting disease progression, such as depth of subserosal invasion, horizontal tumor spread, tumor budding, dedifferentiation, Ki-67 labeling index, p53 nuclear expression, CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, mitotic counts, Laminin-5-gamma-2 chain, hypoxia-inducible factor-1a, cyclooxygenase-2 and the Hedgehog signaling pathway have been investigated, useful prognostic makers or factors have not been established. As GBC is often discovered incidentally after routine cholecystectomy and accurate preoperative diagnosis is difficult, close mutual cooperation between surgeons and pathologists is essential for developing a rational surgical strategy for GBC.