The use of combination therapy in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
ABSTRACT In recent years, there has been growing interest in the potential use of combination therapy in the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Possible regimens include sequential or combined use of anti-resorptive drugs or combinations of anabolic and anti-resorptive agents, given concurrently or in sequence. Combined therapy with anti-resorptive drugs usually produces greater increases in bone mineral density (BMD) than monotherapy but there is no evidence that this results in greater anti-fracture efficacy. The use of bisphosphonates before strontium ranelate or PTH peptides blunts the BMD response. Combined PTH and anti-resorptive therapy results in more rapid gains in spine BMD and a greater increase in hip BMD than PTH monotherapy in the first year of treatment but greater gains in both spine and hip BMD are seen with PTH monotherapy than combined therapy after 2 years of treatment. Anti-resorptive therapy after PTH therapy maintains or increases the gains in BMD. Further research is required to establish the cost-effectiveness and safety of combined and sequential regimens.
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ABSTRACT: To compare an oral estrogen-androgen combination with estrogens alone on bone, menopausal symptoms, and lipoprotein profiles in postmenopausal women. Surgically menopausal women received oral esterified estrogens (1.25 mg), or esterified estrogens (1.25 mg) and methyltestosterone (2.5 mg) daily, for 2 years. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and hip, menopausal symptoms, lipoprotein profiles, and biochemical and hematologic indices were evaluated. Sixty-six patients were enrolled in the study. Both treatment regimens prevented bone loss at the spine and hip; combined estrogen-androgen therapy was associated with a significant increase in spinal bone mineral density compared with baseline (n = 24; mean score +/- standard error 3.4 +/- 1.2%, P < .01). In the estrogen group, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased significantly and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly. Cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides decreased significantly in the estrogen-androgen group. Menopausal symptoms of somatic origin (hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and insomnia) were improved significantly by both treatments. Neither adverse hepatic effects nor significant safety or tolerance problems were reported in either group. Oral estrogen-androgen increased vertebral bone mineral density compared with pre-treatment values and relieved somatic symptoms. Safety indices, including lipoprotein levels, indicated that the combination was well tolerated over the 2 years of treatment.Obstetrics and Gynecology 05/1995; 85(4):529-37. · 4.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Once-daily injections of parathyroid hormone or its amino-terminal fragments increase bone formation and bone mass without causing hypercalcemia, but their effects on fractures are unknown. We randomly assigned 1637 postmenopausal women with prior vertebral fractures to receive 20 or 40 microg of parathyroid hormone (1-34) or placebo, administered subcutaneously by the women daily. We obtained vertebral radiographs at base line and at the end of the study (median duration of observation, 21 months) and performed serial measurements of bone mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. New vertebral fractures occurred in 14 percent of the women in the placebo group and in 5 percent and 4 percent, respectively, of the women in the 20-microg and 40-microg parathyroid hormone groups; the respective relative risks of fracture in the 20-microg and 40-microg groups, as compared with the placebo group, were 0.35 and 0.31 (95 percent confidence intervals, 0.22 to 0.55 and 0.19 to 0.50). New nonvertebral fragility fractures occurred in 6 percent of the women in the placebo group and in 3 percent of those in each parathyroid hormone group (relative risk, 0.47 and 0.46, respectively [95 percent confidence intervals, 0.25 to 0.88 and 0.25 to 0.861). As compared with placebo, the 20-microg and 40-microg doses of parathyroid hormone increased bone mineral density by 9 and 13 more percentage points in the lumbar spine and by 3 and 6 more percentage points in the femoral neck; the 40-microg dose decreased bone mineral density at the shaft of the radius by 2 more percentage points. Both doses increased total-body bone mineral by 2 to 4 more percentage points than did placebo. Parathyroid hormone had only minor side effects (occasional nausea and headache). Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with parathyroid hormone (1-34) decreases the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures; increases vertebral, femoral, and total-body bone mineral density; and is well tolerated. The 40-microg dose increased bone mineral density more than the 20-microg dose but had similar effects on the risk of fracture and was more likely to have side effects.New England Journal of Medicine 06/2001; 344(19):1434-41. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Early postmenopausal women ( n = 160) were randomised to receive placebo or strontium ranelate (SR) 125 mg/day, 500 mg/day or 1 g/day for 2 years (40 participants per group). All participants received calcium 500 mg/day. The primary efficacy parameter was the percent variation in lumbar bone mineral density (BMD), measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Secondary efficacy criteria included hip BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover. At month 24, SR 1 g/day significantly increased lumbar BMD compared with placebo [mean (SD) +5.53% (5.12); p<0.001] for measured values and [mean (SD) +1.41% (5.33%); p<0.05] for values adjusted for bone strontium content. The annual increase for adjusted values was +0.66% compared with -0.5% with placebo, with an overall beneficial effect after 2 years of about 2.4% with SR 1 g/day relative to placebo. There were no other significant between-group differences in adjusted lumbar BMD. Femoral neck and total hip BMD were also significantly increased at month 24 with SR 1 g/day compared with placebo [mean (SD): +2.46% (4.78) and +3.21% (4.68), respectively; both p<0.001)]. SR 1 g/day significantly increased bone alkaline phosphatase at all time points ( p<0.05) compared with baseline and between-group analysis showed a significant increase, compared with placebo, at month 18 ( p = 0.048). No effect on markers of bone resorption was observed. SR was as well tolerated as placebo. The minimum does at which SR is effective in preventing bone loss in early postmenopausal non-osteoporotic women is therefore 1 g/day.Osteoporosis International 01/2003; 13(12):925-31. · 4.04 Impact Factor