Curative treatment for central nervous system medulloepithelioma despite residual disease after resection. Report of two cases treated according to the GPHO Protocol HIT 2000 and review of the literature.
ABSTRACT Medulloepithelioma of the central nervous system (CNS) is an uncommon primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) usually occurring in early childhood. It is characterized by highly malignant behavior with a propensity for progression, recurrence, and dissemination despite intensive therapy. Due to its rarity, the optimal management is still unknown. However, gross total resection (GTR) has been considered crucial to achieve cure. In this article, the authors report on 2 cases of CNS medulloepithelioma in which long-term survival (more than 6 years) could be achieved despite evidence of, or suspected postoperative residual disease with an otherwise dismal prognosis.The patients were treated according to different strata of the protocol for primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the German-Austrian multicenter trial of the German Society for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH) for childhood brain tumors (HIT 2000). Treatment included postoperative hyperfractionated radiotherapy of the craniospinal axis followed by a boost to the tumor site in combination with chemotherapy. A review of the 2 reported and 37 previously published cases confirmed GTR and older age as positive prognostic factors.
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ABSTRACT: While pediatric orbital tumors are most often managed in tertiary care centers, clinicians should be aware of the signs of intraocular and orbital neoplasms. In the pediatric population, a delay in diagnosis of orbital and intraocular lesions, even if benign, can lead to vision loss and deformity. Intraocular lesions reviewed are retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, and retinal astrocytic hamartoma. Orbital neoplasms reviewed are rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma metastases, optic pathway glioma, plexiform neurofibroma, leukemia, lymphoprolipherative disease, orbital inflammatory syndrome, dermoid and epidermoid inclusion cysts, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Vascular lesions reviewed are infantile hemangioma and venous lymphatic malformation. In conjunction with clinical examination, high-resolution ophthalmic imaging and radiologic imaging play an important role in making a diagnosis and differentiating between benign and likely malignant processes. The radiologic imaging characteristics of these lesions will be discussed to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment. The current treatment modalities and management of tumors will also be reviewed.Journal of Oncology 03/2013; 2013:975908. DOI:10.1155/2013/975908
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intracranial peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (P-PNET) are extremely rare. They can be easily misdiagnosed as central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CNS-PNET) or meningiomas. Little is known about the optimal treatment and prognosis of these tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the treatment and outcome of 17 patients with intracranial, nonmetastatic, genetically confirmed P-PNET. Three patients were treated at our institutions. Thirteen other cases providing sufficient treatment and follow-up information were extracted from the literature. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 17 years. All patients underwent initial surgery. Complete resection was achieved in 9 of the 17 cases (53 %). Combined adjuvant treatment consisting of radiotherapy (focal, n = 10; craniospinal, n = 1) and chemotherapy was administered to 11 of the 17 patients (59 %). The median follow-up time was 1.4 years. In 8 of the 17 patients (47 %), the disease progressed; 4 of the 17 patients (24 %) died. The 2-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 64 % and 76 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: The differential diagnosis for intracranial, meningeal-based, small, round-cell tumors should include P-PNET. It is highly probable that complete resection has a positive impact on survival-as previously reported for extracranial P-PNET-but this cannot be shown by our data. Intensive adjuvant treatment consisting of radiotherapy and chemotherapy seems to be essential. A statistically grounded recommendation for the appropriate target volume and radiation dose is not yet possible. However, in most case reports of primary intracranial P-PNET published to date, patients were treated with focal irradiation. The optimal chemotherapy regimen has yet to be established, with both the Ewing tumor and CNS-PNET protocols being promising candidates for effective treatment.Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 03/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00066-013-0315-4 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Primary metastatic diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is relatively rare and associated with a dismal prognosis. Combining craniospinal irradiation (CSI) with concurrent temozolomide and nimotuzumab therapy may slightly improve tumor control and overall survival. However, little is known about the feasibility and toxicity of this treatment approach. Here, we describe the case of an 8-year-old girl with primary metastatic DIPG who received craniospinal radiotherapy, a local boost, and concurrent temozolomide and nimotuzumab treatment based on an individual therapy recommendation. Radiotherapy could be completed without any interruption. However, concurrent temozolomide had to be disrupted several times due to considerable acute myelotoxicity (grade III-IV).Maintenance immunochemotherapy could be started with a delay of 5 days and was performed according to treatment schedule. The disease could be stabilized for a few months. A routine MRI scan finally depicted disease progression 5.7 months after the start of irradiation. The patient died 1.9 months later.Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 06/2013; 189(8). DOI:10.1007/s00066-013-0370-x · 2.73 Impact Factor