Post-ischaemic angiogenic therapy using in vivo prevascularized ascorbic acid-enriched myocardial artificial grafts improves heart function in a rat model.
ABSTRACT Angiogenesis plays a key role in post-ischaemic myocardial repair. We hypothesized that epicardial implantation of an ascorbic acid (AA)-enriched myocardial artificial graft (MAG), which has been prevascularized in the recipients' own body, promotes restoration of the ischaemic heart. Gelatin patches were seeded with GFP-luciferase-expressing rat cardiomyoblasts and enriched with 5 μ m AA. Grafts were prevascularized in vivo for 3 days, using a renal pouch model in rats. The MAG patch was then implanted into the same rat's ischaemic heart following myocardial infarction (MI). MAG-treated animals (MAG group, n = 6) were compared to untreated infarcted animals as injury controls (MI group, n = 6) and sham-operated rats as healthy controls (healthy group, n = 7). In vivo bioluminescence imaging indicated a decrease in donor cell survival by 83% during the first week post-implantation. Echocardiographic and haemodynamic assessment 4 weeks after MI revealed that MAG treatment attenuated left ventricular (LV) remodelling (LV end-systolic volume, 0.31 ± 0.13 vs 0.81 ± 0.01 ml, p < 0.05; LV end-diastolic volume 0.79 ± 0.33 vs 1.83 ± 0.26 ml, p < 0.076) and preserved LV wall thickness (0.21 ± 0.03 vs 0.09 ± 0.005 cm, p < 0.05) compared to the MI group. Cardiac output was higher in MAG than MI (51.59 ± 6.5 vs 25.06 ± 4.24 ml/min, p < 0.01) and comparable to healthy rats (47.08 ± 1.9 ml/min). Histology showed decreased fibrosis, and a seven-fold increase in blood vessel density in the scar area of MAG compared to MI group (15.3 ± 1.1 vs 2.1 ± 0.3 blood vessels/hpf, p < 0.0001). Implantation of AA-enriched prevascularized grafts enhanced vascularity in ischaemic rat hearts, attenuated LV remodelling and preserved LV function. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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ABSTRACT: We recently demonstrated that marrow stromal cells (MSCs) augment collateral remodeling through release of several cytokines such as VEGF and bFGF rather than via cell incorporation into new or remodeling vessels. The present study was designed to characterize the full spectrum of cytokine genes expressed by MSCs and to further examine the role of paracrine mechanisms that underpin their therapeutic potential. Normal human MSCs were cultured under normoxic or hypoxic conditions for 72 hours. The gene expression profile of the cells was determined using Affymetrix GeneChips representing 12 000 genes. A wide array of arteriogenic cytokine genes were expressed at baseline, and several were induced >1.5-fold by hypoxic stress. The gene array data were confirmed using ELISA assays and immunoblotting of the MSC conditioned media (MSC(CM)). MSC(CM) promoted in vitro proliferation and migration of endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner; anti-VEGF and anti-FGF antibodies only partially attenuated these effects. Similarly, MSC(CM) promoted smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration in a dose-dependent manner. Using a murine hindlimb ischemia model, murine MSC(CM) enhanced collateral flow recovery and remodeling, improved limb function, reduced the incidence of autoamputation, and attenuated muscle atrophy compared with control media. These data indicate that paracrine signaling is an important mediator of bone marrow cell therapy in tissue ischemia, and that cell incorporation into vessels is not a prerequisite for their effects.Circulation Research 03/2004; 94(5):678-85. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) improves tissue perfusion in large animals and humans with chronic myocardial ischemia. Because tissue perfusion is mainly dependent on the arteriolar tree, we hypothesized that the neovascularizing effect of VEGF should include arteriogenesis, an effect not as yet described in large mammalian models of myocardial ischemia. In the present study we investigated the effect of intramyocardial plasmid-mediated human VEGF(165) gene transfer (pVEGF(165)) on the proliferation of vessels with smooth muscle in a pig model of myocardial ischemia. In addition, we assessed the effect of treatment on capillary growth, myocardial perfusion, myocardial function and collateralization. Three weeks after positioning of an Ameroid constrictor (Research Instruments SW, Escondido, CA) in the left circumflex artery, pigs underwent basal perfusion (single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] with (99m)Tc-sestamibi) and regional function (echocardiography) studies at rest and under dobutamine stress, and were then randomly assigned to receive transepicardial injection of pVEGF(165) 3.8 mg (n = 8) or placebo (empty plasmid, n = 8). All experimental steps and data analysis were done in a blinded fashion. Five weeks later, pVEGF(165)-treated pigs showed a significantly higher density of small (8-50 microm in diameter) vessels with smooth muscle, higher density of capillaries, and improved myocardial perfusion. These results indicate an arteriogenic effect of VEGF in a large mammalian model of myocardial ischemia and encourage the use of VEGF to promote arteriolar growth in patients with severe coronary artery disease.Human Gene Therapy 10/2003; 14(14):1307-18. · 4.02 Impact Factor
Eliana C Martinez