rAAV human trial experience.
ABSTRACT Recombinant AAV vectors have been used in clinical trials since the mid-1990s, with over 300 subjects enrolled in studies. Although there are not yet licensed AAV products, there are several clear examples of clinical efficacy, and recombinant AAV vectors have a strong safety record after administration both locally and systemically. This chapter provides a review of two types of studies that have shown efficacy, including studies for Leber's congenital amaurosis, a hereditary retinal degenerative disorder in which subretinal administration of AAV has shown efficacy in terms of improvement in multiple measures of visual/retinal function; and of Parkinson's disease which has also shown improvement in clinical and imaging studies after gene transfer to the CNS. The chapter also provides a detailed review of the results of studies of gene therapy for hemophilia, in which short-term efficacy was achieved, but expression of the donated gene failed to persist, likely due to an immune response to the vector. Safety issues relating to AAV-mediated gene transfer are discussed, including a detailed review of the single death to have occurred in an AAV gene therapy trial (likely unrelated to the AAV vector), and of issues related to integration and insertional mutagenesis, risk of germline transmission, and risks related to immune responses to either vector or transgene product. Finally, protocols for determining the presence of vector DNA in body fluids using real-time quantitative PCR, and for isolating, cryopreserving, and testing peripheral blood mononuclear cells for interferon-γ (IFN-γ) responses to capsid are described in detail.
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ABSTRACT: Clinical data support the feasibility and safety of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors in gene therapy applications. Despite several clinical trials of AAV-based gene transfer for hemophilia B, a unique set of obstacles impede the development of a similar approach for hemophilia A. These include (i) the size of the factor VIII (fVIII) transgene, (ii) humoral immune responses to fVIII, (iii) inefficient biosynthesis of human fVIII, and (iv) AAV vector immunity. Through bioengineering approaches, a novel fVIII molecule, designated ET3, was developed and shown to improve biosynthetic efficiency 10- to 100-fold. In this study, the utility of ET3 was assessed in the context of liver-directed, AAV-mediated gene transfer into hemophilia A mice. Due to the large size of the expression cassette, AAV-ET3 genomes packaged into viral particles as partial genome fragments. Despite this potential limitation, a single peripheral vein administration of AAV-ET3 into immune-competent hemophilia A mice resulted in correction of the fVIII deficiency at lower vector doses than previously reported for similarly oversized AAV-fVIII vectors. Therefore, ET3 appears to improve vector potency and mitigate at least one of the critical barriers to AAV-based clinical gene therapy for hemophilia A.08/2014; 1:14036. DOI:10.1038/mtm.2014.36
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ABSTRACT: We describe a new rapid, low cost, and scalable method for purification of various recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) from the lysates of producer cells of either mammalian or insect origin. The method takes advantage of two general biochemical properties of all characterized AAV serotypes: (i) low isoelectric point of a capsid and (ii) relative biological stability of the viral particle in the acidic environment. A simple and rapid clarification of cell lysate toremove the bulk of proteins and DNA is accomplished by utilizing inexpensive off-the-shelf reagents such as sodium citrate and citric acid. After the low-speed centrifugation step, the supernatant is subjected to cation exchange chromatography via sulfopropyl (SP) column. The eluted virus may then be further concentrated by either centrifugal spin devices or tangential flow filtration yielding material of high titer and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) grade biochemical purity. The protocol is validated for rAAV serotypes 2, 8, and 9. The described method makes rAAV vector technology readily available for the low budget research laboratories and could be easily adapted for a large scale GMP production format.08/2014; 1. DOI:10.1038/mtm.2014.34
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ABSTRACT: Tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) is a high-affinity receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor. In addition to its nervous system functions, TrkB is also expressed in the cardiovascular system. However, the association of TrkB and coronary artery disease (CAD) remains unknown. We investigated the role of TrkB in the development of CAD and its mechanism. We performed a case-control study in 2 independent cohort of Chinese subjects and found -69C>G polymorphisms of TrkB gene significantly associated with CAD. TrkB -69C homozygotes, which corresponded to decreased TrkB expression by luciferase reporter assay, showed increased risk for CAD. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that TrkB was expressed in the aortic endothelium in atherosclerotic lesions in humans and ApoE(-/-) mice. TrkB knockdown in the aortic endothelium resulted in vascular leakage in ApoE(-/-) mice. Mechanistic studies showed that TrkB regulated VE-cadherin expression through induction and activation of Ets1 transcriptional factor. Importantly, TrkB activation attenuated proatherosclerotic factors induced-endothelial hyperpermeability in human vascular endothelial cells. Our data demonstrate that TrkB protects endothelial integrity during atherogenesis by promoting Ets1-mediated VE-cadherin expression and plays a previously unknown protective role in the development of CAD. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 01/2015; 35(3). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.304405 · 5.53 Impact Factor