Brain Arteriovenous Malformation Multiplicity Predicts the Diagnosis of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Quantitative Assessment
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to quantitatively estimate the relationship between multiplicity of brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) and the diagnosis of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT).
We combined databases from 2 large North American bAVM referral centers, including demographics, clinical presentation, and angiographic characteristics, and compared patients with HHT with non-HHT patients. Logistic regression analysis was performed to quantify the association between bAVM multiplicity and odds of HHT diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated to determine accuracy of bAVM multiplicity for screening HHT.
Prevalence of HHT was 2.8% in the combined group. bAVM multiplicity was present in 39% of patients with HHT and was highly associated with diagnosis of HHT in univariate (OR, 83; 95% CI, 40-173; P<0.0001) and multivariable (OR, 86; 95% CI, 38-195; P<0.001) models adjusting for age at presentation (P=0.013), symptomatic presentation (P=0.029), and cohort site (P=0.021). bAVM multiplicity alone was associated with high specificity (99.2%; 95% CI, 98.7%-99.6%) and negative predictive value (98.3%; 95% CI, 97.6%-98.8%) and low sensitivity (39.3%; 95% CI, 26.5%-53.2%) and positive predictive value (59.5%; 95% CI, 42.1%-75.2%). Positive and negative likelihood ratio was 51 and 0.61, respectively, for diagnosis of HHT. HHT bAVMs were also more often smaller in size (<3 cm), noneloquent in location, and associated with superficial venous drainage compared with non-HHT bAVMs.
Multiplicity of bAVMs is highly predictive of the diagnosis of HHT. The presence of multiple bAVMs should alert the clinician to the high probability of HHT and lead to comprehensive investigation for this diagnosis.
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ABSTRACT: Brain vascular malformations are resource-intensive to manage effectively, are associated with serious neurological morbidity, lack specific medical therapies, and have no validated biomarkers for disease severity and progression. Investigators have tended to work in "research silos" with suboptimal cross-communication. We present here a paradigm for interdisciplinary collaboration to facilitate rare disease research. The Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium (BVMC) is a multidisciplinary, inter-institutional group of investigators, one of 17 consortia in the Office of Rare Disease Research Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN). The diseases under study are: familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations type 1, common Hispanic mutation (CCM1-CHM); Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS); and brain arteriovenous malformation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Each project is developing biomarkers for disease progression and severity, and has established scalable, relational databases for observational and longitudinal studies that are stored centrally by the RDCRN Data Management and Coordinating Center. Patient Support Organizations (PSOs) are a key RDCRN component in the recruitment and support of participants. The BVMC PSOs include Angioma Alliance, Sturge Weber Foundation, and HHT Foundation International. Our networks of clinical centers of excellence in SWS and HHT, as well as our PSOs, have enhanced BVMC patient recruitment. The BVMC provides unique and valuable resources to the clinical neurovascular community, and recently reported findings are reviewed. Future planned studies will apply successful approaches and insights across the three projects to leverage the combined resources of the BVMC and RDCRN in advancing new biomarkers and treatment strategies for patients with vascular malformations.
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ABSTRACT: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known by the eponym Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is a group of related disorders inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and characterized by the development of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in the skin, mucous membranes, and/or internal organs such as brain, lungs, and liver. Its prevalence is currently estimated at one in 5,000 to 8,000. Most cases are due to mutations in the endoglin (HHT1) or ACVRLK1 (HHT2) genes. Telangiectasias in nasal and gastrointestinal mucosa generally present with recurrent/chronic bleeding and iron deficiency anemia. Larger AVMs occur in lungs (~40%-60% of affected individuals), liver (~40%-70%), brain (~10%), and spine (~1%). Due to the devastating and potentially fatal complications of some of these lesions (for example, strokes and brain abscesses with pulmonary AVMs), presymptomatic screening and treatment are of utmost importance. However, due to the rarity of this condition, many providers lack an appreciation for the whole gamut of its manifestations and complications, age-dependent penetrance, and marked intrafamilial variation. As a result, HHT remains frequently underdiagnosed and many families do not receive the appropriate screening and treatments. This article provides an overview of the clinical features of HHT, discusses the clinical and genetic diagnostic strategies, and presents an up-to-date review of literature and detailed considerations regarding screening for visceral AVMs, preventive modalities, and treatment options.Hematology Research and Reviews 01/2014; 5:191-206. DOI:10.2147/JBM.S45295