Mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 phosphorylates and promotes Pin1 protein-dependent promyelocytic leukemia protein turnover.
ABSTRACT The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is a tumor suppressor that has an important role in several cellular processes, including apoptosis, viral infection, DNA damage repair, cell cycle regulation, and senescence. PML is an essential component of sub-nuclear structures called PML nuclear bodies (NBs). Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, Pin1, binds and targets PML for degradation in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying Pin1-mediated PML degradation, we aimed to identify one or more factors that promote PML phosphorylation. Here we show that treatment with U0126, an inhibitor of the ERK2 upstream kinases MEK1/2, leads to an increase in PML protein accumulation and an inhibition of the interaction between Pin1 and PML in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Consistent with this observation, phosphorylated ERK2 partially co-localized with PML NBs. Although U0126 up-regulated exogenous wild-type PML levels, it did not have an effect on the steady-state level of a mutant form of PML that is defective in binding Pin1. In addition, exogenous wild-type, but not Pin1 binding-defective PML protein expression levels were decreased by overexpression of ERK2. In contrast, knockdown of ERK2 by siRNA resulted in an increase in PML protein levels and an increase in the formation of PML NBs. Using phospho-specific antibodies, we identified Ser-403 and Ser-505 as the ERK2 targets that promote Pin1-mediated PML degradation. Finally, we demonstrated that EGF induced activation of ERK and interaction between PML and phosphorylated ERK resulting in a decrease in PML protein levels. Taken together, our results support a model in which Pin1 promotes PML degradation in an ERK2-dependent manner.
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ABSTRACT: The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is a tumor suppressor that is expressed at a low level in various cancers. Although post-translational modifications including SUMOylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination have been found to regulate the stability or activity of PML, little is known about the role of its acetylation in the control of cell survival. Here we demonstrate that acetylation of lysine 487 (K487) and SUMO1 conjugation of K490 at PML protein are mutually exclusive. We found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) promotes PML deacetylation and identified SIRT1 and SIRT5 as PML deacetylases. Both SIRT1 and SIRT5 are required for H2O2-mediated deacetylation of PML and accumulation of nuclear PML protein in HeLa cells. Knockdown of SIRT1 reduces the number of H2O2-induced PML-nuclear bodies (NBs) and increases the survival of HeLa cells. Ectopic expression of wild-type PML but not the K487R mutant rescues H2O2-induced cell death in SIRT1 knockdown cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of wild-type SIRT5 but not a catalytic defective mutant can also restore H2O2-induced cell death in SIRT1 knockdown cells. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel regulatory mechanism in which SIRT1/SIRT5-mediated PML deacetylation plays a role in the regulation of cancer cell survival.Cell Death & Disease 07/2014; 5:e1340. · 5.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recognition of the tumour suppressive capacity of the Promyelocytic Leukemia protein (PML) has emerged beyond its identification through APL, to a broad spectrum of tumors. This ability has chiefly been linked to its role as a core component of dynamic structures termed PML Nuclear Bodies (PML-NBs). In response to a variety of stresses, key factors andtheir molecular modifiersare recruited to PML-NBs, whereactivating modifications are facilitated, leading to a cellular stress response. PML was also found to perform anti-tumourigenic functions through cytoplasmic activities. Surprisingly, important recent research defined growth promoting capabilities of PML, which significantly challenges the notion of a 'classic' tumour suppressor. Through metabolic reprogramming, PML can afford a selective advantage for tumor cells in certain settings. The multiple forms in which PML exists are the likely explanation of this functional diversity. This behavioral ambiguity however raises a significant challenge to the design of strategies to therapeutically target PML. In this review we discuss this change of paradigm in the PML field and its ramifications, particularly for tailoring cancer therapies.FEBS letters 02/2014; · 3.54 Impact Factor
Article: Prolyl isomerase Pin1 in cancer.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Proline-directed phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification that is instrumental in regulating signaling from the plasma membrane to the nucleus, and its dysregulation contributes to cancer development. Protein interacting with never in mitosis A1 (Pin1), which is overexpressed in many types of cancer, isomerizes specific phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro bonds in many substrate proteins, including glycolytic enzyme, protein kinases, protein phosphatases, methyltransferase, lipid kinase, ubiquitin E3 ligase, DNA endonuclease, RNA polymerase, and transcription activators and regulators. This Pin1-mediated isomerization alters the structures and activities of these proteins, thereby regulating cell metabolism, cell mobility, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell survival, apoptosis and tumor development.Cell Research advance online publication 15 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cr.2014.109.Cell Research 08/2014; · 11.98 Impact Factor