RhoA co-ordinates with heterotrimeric G proteins to regulate efficacy.
ABSTRACT Heterotrimeric G proteins have a critical role in mediating signal transduction by ligand-stimulated GPCRs. While activation of heterotrimeric G proteins is known to proceed via the G protein guanine nucleotide cycle, there is much uncertainty regarding the process that determines efficacy, the extent of response across signaling pathways. Gα(GTP) can interact with multiple binding partners, including several effectors and regulators. Cross-talk by other receptor-signaling pathways can alter the response. It remains unclear whether G protein efficacy is regulated. This lack of clarity impairs our ability to predict and manipulate the pharmacological behavior of activated G proteins. This review will discuss emerging evidence that implicates monomeric RhoA in the process that regulates G(q) efficacy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Gq-linked G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their signaling pathways are important clinical targets for the dementia of Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive decline with aging. Gq stimulates phospholipase C-β1 (PLC-β1) activity, increasing levels of inositol-1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol, to initiate mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ and activation of protein kinase C, respectively. While high concentrations of ligand typically evoke large sustained increases in cytosolic Ca2+ levels, it has long been appreciated that the dynamics of the Ca2+ increase are more complex and consistent with multiple levels of regulation. Physiologically relevant concentrations of Gq-ligands evoke rhythmic fluctuations or an oscillation in the level of cytosolic Ca2+. Downstream targets are tuned to respond to the frequency of the Ca2+ oscillations which in turn, reflect the oscillations in IP3 levels. Oscillatory behavior depends on the assembly of self-organizing interactions. The components that contribute to and regulate the Ca2+ oscillator have been unclear, precluding transfer of this fundamental knowledge from bench to bedside. Many GPCRs that signal with Gq also co-signal with G12. G protein co-signaling could therefore regulate the Ca2+ oscillator. This letter explores the potential relationship between Ca2+ oscillations, G protein co-signaling and cellular response in the context of our recent observations. We found that Gq efficacy is synergistic with phosphatidic acid, (PA), a signaling mediator generated downstream of activated G12 and RhoA. Regulation by PA depends on interaction with the unique PLC-β1 PA binding region. G protein co-signaling is therefore a mechanism for GPCRs to collectively assemble self-organizing interactions that regulate the Ca2+ oscillator.Translational Neuroscience. 4(1).