A novel method for isolating individual cellular components from the adult human distal lung.
ABSTRACT A variety of lung diseases, such as pulmonary emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, develop in the lung alveoli. Multiple cell types are localized in the alveoli, including epithelial, mesenchymal, and endothelial cells. These resident cells participate in the pathogenesis of lung disease in various ways. To elaborate clearly on the mechanisms of these pathologic processes, cell type-specific analyses of lung disease are required. However, no method exists for individually isolating the different types of cells found in the alveoli. We report on the development of a FACS-based method for the direct isolation of individual cell types from the adult human distal lung. We obtained human lung tissue from lung resections, and prepared single-cell suspension. After depleting CD45-positive cells, a combination of antibodies against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), T1α, and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin as used to delineate alveolar cell types. Alveolar Type II cells were highly purified in the EpCAM(hi)/T1α(-) subset, whereas the EpCAM(+)/T1α(-/low) subset contained a mixed epithelial population consisting of alveolar Type I and bronchiolar epithelial cells. The EpCAM(-)/T1α(-) subset included both microvascular endothelial and mesenchymal cells, and these were separated by immunoreactivity to VE-cadherin. Lymphatic endothelial cells existed in the EpCAM(-)/T1α(hi) subset. Isolated cells were viable, and further cell culture studies could be performed. These results suggest that this novel method enables the isolation of different cellular components from normal and diseased lungs, and is capable of elucidating phenotypes specific to certain alveolar cell types indicative of lung disease.
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ABSTRACT: The University of Vermont College of Medicine and the Vermont Lung Center, in collaboration with the NHLBI, Alpha-1 Foundation, American Thoracic Society, European Respiratory Society, International Society for Cell Therapy, and the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation, convened a workshop, "Stem Cells and Cell Therapies in Lung Biology and Lung Diseases," held July 29 to August 1, 2013 at the University of Vermont. The conference objectives were to review the current understanding of the role of stem and progenitor cells in lung repair after injury and to review the current status of cell therapy and ex vivo bioengineering approaches for lung diseases. These are all rapidly expanding areas of study that both provide further insight into and challenge traditional views of mechanisms of lung repair after injury and pathogenesis of several lung diseases. The goals of the conference were to summarize the current state of the field, discuss and debate current controversies, and identify future research directions and opportunities for both basic and translational research in cell-based therapies for lung diseases. This conference was a follow-up to four previous biennial conferences held at the University of Vermont in 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011. Each of those conferences, also sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, American Thoracic Society, and Respiratory Disease Foundations, has been important in helping guide research and funding priorities. The major conference recommendations are summarized at the end of the report and highlight both the significant progress and major challenges in these rapidly progressing fields.04/2015; 12(4):S79-S97. DOI:10.1513/AnnalsATS.201502-086ST
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ABSTRACT: Mechanical ventilation, through over-distension of the lung, induces substantial inflammation that is thought to increase mortality among critically ill patients. The mechanotransduction processes involved in converting lung distension into inflammation during this ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) remain unclear, though many cell types have been shown to be involved in its pathogenesis. This study aimed to identify the profile of in vivo lung cellular activation that occurs during the initiation of VILI. This was achieved using a flow cytometry-based method to quantify the phosphorylation of several markers (p38, ERK1/2, MK2 and NF-κB) of inflammatory pathway activation within individual cell types. Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice were ventilated with low (7ml/kg), intermediate (30ml/kg) or high (40ml/kg) tidal volumes for 1, 5 or 15 minutes followed by immediate fixing and processing of the lungs. Surprisingly, the pulmonary endothelium was the cell type most responsive to in vivo high tidal volume ventilation, demonstrating activation within just 1 minute, followed by the alveolar epithelium. Alveolar macrophages were the slowest to respond, though still demonstrated activation within 5 minutes. This order of activation was specific to VILI, as intratracheal lipopolysaccharide induced a very different pattern. These results suggest that alveolar macrophages may become activated via a secondary mechanism which occurs subsequent to activation of the parenchyma, and that the lung cellular activation mechanism may be different between VILI and lipopolysaccharide. Our data also demonstrates that even very short periods of high stretch can promote inflammatory activation, and importantly, this injury may be immediately manifested within the pulmonary vasculature. Copyright © 2015, American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology.AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 03/2015; 308(9):ajplung.00048.2015. DOI:10.1152/ajplung.00048.2015 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Influenza viruses cause acute respiratory disease of great importance to public health. Alveolar type II (ATII) respiratory epithelial cells are central to normal lung function and are a site of influenza A virus replication in the distal lung. However, the consequences of infection for ATII cell function are poorly understood. To determine the impact of influenza infection on ATII cells we used C57BL/6-congenic SP-C(GFP) mice that express GFP under the control of the surfactant protein-C (SP-C) promoter, which is only active in ATII cells. Most cells isolated from the lungs of uninfected SP-C(GFP) mice were GFP(+) but did not express the alveolar type I (ATI) antigen podoplanin (PODO). ATII cells were also EpCAM(+) and α2,3-linked sialosaccharide(+). Infection with influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus caused severe hypoxemia and pulmonary edema. This was accompanied by loss of whole lung GFP fluorescence, reduced ATII cell yields, increased ATII cell apoptosis, reduced SP-C gene and protein expression in ATII cell lysates, and increased PODO gene and protein levels. Flow cytometry indicated that infection decreased GFP(+)/PODO(-) cells and increased GFP(-)/PODO(+) and GFP(-)/PODO(-) cells. Very few GFP(+)/PODO(+) cells were detectable. Finally, infection resulted in a significant decline in EpCAM expression by PODO(+) cells, but had limited effects on α2,3-linked sialosaccharides. Our findings indicate that influenza infection results in a progressive differentiation of ATII cells into ATI-like cells, possibly via an SP-C(-)/PODO(-) intermediate, in order to replace dying or dead ATI cells. However, impaired SP-C synthesis is likely to contribute significantly to reduced lung compliance in infected mice. Copyright © 2014, American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology.AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 01/2015; 308(7):ajplung.00373.2014. DOI:10.1152/ajplung.00373.2014 · 4.04 Impact Factor