A novel method for isolating individual cellular components from the adult human distal lung.
ABSTRACT A variety of lung diseases, such as pulmonary emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, develop in the lung alveoli. Multiple cell types are localized in the alveoli, including epithelial, mesenchymal, and endothelial cells. These resident cells participate in the pathogenesis of lung disease in various ways. To elaborate clearly on the mechanisms of these pathologic processes, cell type-specific analyses of lung disease are required. However, no method exists for individually isolating the different types of cells found in the alveoli. We report on the development of a FACS-based method for the direct isolation of individual cell types from the adult human distal lung. We obtained human lung tissue from lung resections, and prepared single-cell suspension. After depleting CD45-positive cells, a combination of antibodies against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), T1α, and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin as used to delineate alveolar cell types. Alveolar Type II cells were highly purified in the EpCAM(hi)/T1α(-) subset, whereas the EpCAM(+)/T1α(-/low) subset contained a mixed epithelial population consisting of alveolar Type I and bronchiolar epithelial cells. The EpCAM(-)/T1α(-) subset included both microvascular endothelial and mesenchymal cells, and these were separated by immunoreactivity to VE-cadherin. Lymphatic endothelial cells existed in the EpCAM(-)/T1α(hi) subset. Isolated cells were viable, and further cell culture studies could be performed. These results suggest that this novel method enables the isolation of different cellular components from normal and diseased lungs, and is capable of elucidating phenotypes specific to certain alveolar cell types indicative of lung disease.
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ABSTRACT: LysoTracker Green DND-26 is a fluorescent dye that stains acidic compartments in live cells and has been shown to selectively accumulate in lamellar bodies in alveolar type II (AT2) cells in the lung. The aim of this study was to determine whether the accumulation of LysoTracker in lamellar bodies can be used to isolate viable AT2 cells by flow cytometry and track their differentiation in live-cell culture by microscopy. Mouse lung cells were sorted on the basis of CD45negCD31negEpCAMposLysoTrackerpos expression and characterized by immunostaining for SP-C and cultured in a three-dimensional epithelial colony-forming unit (CFU-Epi) assay. To track AT2 cell differentiation, lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells were cultured in a CFU-Epi assay with LysoTracker-supplemented media. The purity of sorted AT2 cells as determined by SP-C staining was 97.4% and viability was 85.3%. LysoTrackerpos AT2 cells generated SP-Cpos alveolar epithelial cell colonies in culture, and when added to the CFU-Epi culture medium, LysoTracker marked the differentiation of stem/progenitor-derived AT2 cells. This study describes a novel method for isolating AT2 cells from mouse lungs. The high purity and viability of cells attained by this method, makes them suitable for functional analysis in vitro. The application of LysoTracker to live cell cultures will allow better assessment of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate AT2 cell differentiation.Respiratory research 11/2013; 14(1):123. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is becoming a major cause of death worldwide. COPD is characterized by a progressive and not fully reversible airflow limitation caused by chronic small airway disease and lung parenchymal destruction. Clinically available drugs improve airflow obstruction and respiratory symptoms but cannot cure the disease. Slowing the progressive lung destruction or rebuilding the destroyed lung structure is a promising strategy to cure COPD. In contrast to small animal models, pharmacological lung regeneration is difficult in human COPD. Maturation, aging, and senescence in COPD lung cells, including endogenous stem cells, may affect the regenerative capacity following pharmacological therapy. The lung is a complex organ composed of more than 40 different cell types; therefore, detailed analyses, such as epigenetic modification analysis, in each specific cell type have not been performed in lungs with COPD. Recently, a method for the direct isolation of individual cell types from human lung has been developed, and fingerprints of each cell type in COPD lungs can be analyzed. Research using this technique combined with the recently discovered lung endogenous stem-progenitor populations will give a better understanding about the fate of COPD lung cells and provide a future for cell-based therapy to treat this intractable disease.STEM CELLS TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 08/2012; 1(8):627-31. · 3.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes significant morbidity and mortality each year. There is a paucity of information regarding the mechanisms necessary for ARDS resolution. Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Foxp3(+) Treg cells) have been shown to be an important determinant of resolution in an experimental model of lung injury. We demonstrate that intratracheal delivery of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) elicits alveolar epithelial damage from which the epithelium undergoes proliferation and repair. Epithelial proliferation coincided with an increase in Foxp3(+) Treg cells in the lung during the course of resolution. To dissect the role that Foxp3(+) Treg cells exert on epithelial proliferation, we depleted Foxp3(+) Treg cells, which led to decreased alveolar epithelial proliferation and delayed lung injury recovery. Furthermore, antibody-mediated blockade of CD103, an integrin, which binds to epithelial expressed E-cadherin decreased Foxp3(+) Treg numbers and decreased rates of epithelial proliferation after injury. In a non-inflammatory model of regenerative alveologenesis, left lung pneumonectomy, we found that Foxp3(+) Treg cells enhanced epithelial proliferation. Moreover, Foxp3(+) Treg cells co-cultured with primary type II alveolar cells (AT2) directly increased AT2 cell proliferation in a CD103-dependent manner. These studies provide evidence of a new and integral role for Foxp3(+) Treg cells in repair of the lung epithelium.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 21 May 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.33.Mucosal Immunology 05/2014; · 7.54 Impact Factor