Enhancement of Eriobotrya japonica extracts on non-specific immune response and disease resistance in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus against Vibrio carchariae
ABSTRACT The present study investigated the effect of Eriobotrya japonica extracts at 0%, 0.1%, 1.0%, and 2.0% doses supplementation with feed on non-specific immune response, hematological and biochemical profile, and disease resistance against Vibrio carchariae in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus at weeks 1, 2, and 4. The white blood cell (WBC) significantly increased in fish fed with 0.1%, 1.0%, and 2.0% diets on weeks 1 and 2 when compared to the control. However, the glucose always decreased from the control except on week 2 against pathogen. The serum total protein, albumin, and globulin significantly increased at week 2 but they did not changed significantly at weeks 1 and 4. The superoxide anion, lymphokines production index, and phogocytosis did not significantly increased in any diet on the first week whereas it was significantly enhanced in 1.0% and 2.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 4 against V. carchariae when compared to control. All diets significantly enhanced the serum lysozyme activity, bactericidal activity, and haemolytic complement activity from weeks 1-4 as compared to control. The serum agglutinating antibody titre did not significantly enhance on the first week whereas it was significantly enhanced on weeks 2 and 4. Fish fed with 1.0% and 2.0% doses diets was found lower mortality than 0.1% diet. Thus, this study suggested that 1.0% and 2.0% doses supplementation diets could be advocated to enhance the immune response and production disease from V. carchariae in E. bruneus.
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ABSTRACT: Natural products are known to play important role in pharmaceutical biology and have been important source of medicine for thousands of years. Even today, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that up to 80 percent of people still rely mainly on traditional medicines. As plants are one of the most important sources of medicines, a large numbers of drugs are derived such as morphine from Papaver somniferum, Aswagandha from Withania somnifera, Ephedrine from Ephedra vulgaris, Atropine from Atropa belladonna, Reserpine from Roulphia serpentina etc. These herbal plants are used as immunostimulants as an alternative to the drugs, chemicals and antibiotics currently is being used to control diseases. In this context, the use of medicinal plants and their originated products as potential therapeutic measures for modulating the immune response, biological and pharmacological activities to prevent and control diseases. The possible use of naturally available herbal plant such as Aloe vera, Urtica dioica and Zingiber officinale etc have been discussed.
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ABSTRACT: The protective efficacy of liposomes-entrapped with whole cell bacterial vaccine (WCV) on immune response and protection against Vibrio harveyi infection in Epinephelus bruneus was investigated at weeks 1, 2, and 4. The cumulative mortality was 25% in WCV immunized fish whereas it was 35% and 40% with activated whole cell V. harveyi alone (WC) or liposome alone against pathogen; the mortality was 90% in non-immunization fish against pathogen. Total protein significantly increased in WCV and WC groups on weeks 2 and 4. The albumin, globulin, and albumin:globulin ratio significantly increased in WCV and WC groups on week 4. The antibody titres significantly increased in fish immunized with liposomes-entrapped WCV from weeks 1 to 4 where as in WC group only on week 4. The phagocytic activity significantly enhanced in liposomes-entrapped WCV group on weeks 1 and 2 and all other immunized groups on week 4. The complement activity was significantly enhanced in liposomes-entrapped WCV and WC immunized groups on weeks 2 and 4. However, the lysozyme activity significantly was enhanced in all immunization groups from weeks 1 to 4. These results suggest that fish immunized with liposomes-entrapped WCV and WC alone have the potential to modulate the immune system affording increased protection against V. harveyi infection in kelp grouper.Aquaculture 04/2012; s 342–343:69–74. DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.01.038 · 1.83 Impact Factor