Enhancement of Eriobotrya japonica extracts on non-specific immune response and disease resistance in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus against Vibrio carchariae.
ABSTRACT The present study investigated the effect of Eriobotrya japonica extracts at 0%, 0.1%, 1.0%, and 2.0% doses supplementation with feed on non-specific immune response, hematological and biochemical profile, and disease resistance against Vibrio carchariae in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus at weeks 1, 2, and 4. The white blood cell (WBC) significantly increased in fish fed with 0.1%, 1.0%, and 2.0% diets on weeks 1 and 2 when compared to the control. However, the glucose always decreased from the control except on week 2 against pathogen. The serum total protein, albumin, and globulin significantly increased at week 2 but they did not changed significantly at weeks 1 and 4. The superoxide anion, lymphokines production index, and phogocytosis did not significantly increased in any diet on the first week whereas it was significantly enhanced in 1.0% and 2.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 4 against V. carchariae when compared to control. All diets significantly enhanced the serum lysozyme activity, bactericidal activity, and haemolytic complement activity from weeks 1-4 as compared to control. The serum agglutinating antibody titre did not significantly enhance on the first week whereas it was significantly enhanced on weeks 2 and 4. Fish fed with 1.0% and 2.0% doses diets was found lower mortality than 0.1% diet. Thus, this study suggested that 1.0% and 2.0% doses supplementation diets could be advocated to enhance the immune response and production disease from V. carchariae in E. bruneus.
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ABSTRACT: The paper describes the effect of a diet supplemented with the Chinese traditional herbal medicine Sophora flavescens on the immunity and disease resistance of an Oreochromis niloticus GIFT strain. Experimental diets containing 0.025%, 0.050%, 0.100%, 0.200%, and 0.400% S. flavescens, as well as a control group without S. flavescens were used. We tested the non-specific humoral immune responses (lysozyme, antiprotease, and complement) and cellular immune responses (reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species production and myeloperoxidase), as well as disease resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae. S. flavescens supplementation at all dose significantly enhanced serum lysozyme, antiprotease, and natural hemolytic complement activity. Similarly, all S. flavescens doses enhanced cellular myeloperoxidase activity. The increased production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen intermediates by peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in most of the treatment groups throughout the test period. The fish fed 0.100% S. flavescens had a percent mortality of 21.1% and a relative percent survival of 73.3% compared with the group fed the basal diet during the S. agalactiae challenge. The results suggest that S. flavescens can be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish immunity and disease resistance against S. agalactiae.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 10/2012; · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cinnamaldehyde, which is extracted from cinnamon, is a natural compound with activity against bacteria and a modulatory immune function. However, the antibacterial activity and immunostimulation of cinnamaldehyde in fish has not been well investigated due to the compound’s poor water solubility. Thus, liposome-encapsulated cinnamaldehyde (LEC) was used to evaluate the effects of cinnamaldehyde on in vitro antibacterial activity against aquatic pathogens and in vivo immunity and protection parameters against Vibrio vulnificus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) as well as bactericidal agar plate assay results demonstrated the effective bacteriostatic and bactericidal potency of LEC against Aeromonas hydrophila, V. vulnificus, and S. agalactiae, as well as the antibiotic-resistant Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. Bacteria challenge test results demonstrated that LEC significantly enhances the survival rate and inhibits bacterial growth in zebrafish infected with A. hydrophila, V. vulnificus, and S. agalactiae. A gene expression study using a real-time PCR showed that LEC immersion-treated zebrafish had increased endogenous interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-15, IL-21, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (INF)-γ expression in vivo. After the zebrafish were infected with V. vulnificus or S. agalactiae, the LEC immersion treatment suppressed the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-15, NF-κb, and TNF-α and induced IL-10 and C3b expression. These findings demonstrate that cinnamaldehyde exhibits antimicrobial activity against aquatic pathogens, even antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and immune-stimulating effects to protect the host’s defenses against pathogen infection in bacteria-infected zebrafish. These results suggest that LEC could be used as an antimicrobial agent and immunostimulant to protect bacteria-infected fish in aquaculture.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 05/2014; · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The protective efficacy of liposomes-entrapped with whole cell bacterial vaccine (WCV) on immune response and protection against Vibrio harveyi infection in Epinephelus bruneus was investigated at weeks 1, 2, and 4. The cumulative mortality was 25% in WCV immunized fish whereas it was 35% and 40% with activated whole cell V. harveyi alone (WC) or liposome alone against pathogen; the mortality was 90% in non-immunization fish against pathogen. Total protein significantly increased in WCV and WC groups on weeks 2 and 4. The albumin, globulin, and albumin:globulin ratio significantly increased in WCV and WC groups on week 4. The antibody titres significantly increased in fish immunized with liposomes-entrapped WCV from weeks 1 to 4 where as in WC group only on week 4. The phagocytic activity significantly enhanced in liposomes-entrapped WCV group on weeks 1 and 2 and all other immunized groups on week 4. The complement activity was significantly enhanced in liposomes-entrapped WCV and WC immunized groups on weeks 2 and 4. However, the lysozyme activity significantly was enhanced in all immunization groups from weeks 1 to 4. These results suggest that fish immunized with liposomes-entrapped WCV and WC alone have the potential to modulate the immune system affording increased protection against V. harveyi infection in kelp grouper.Aquaculture 04/2012; s 342–343:69–74. · 1.83 Impact Factor