Enhancement of Eriobotrya japonica extracts on non-specific immune response and disease resistance in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus against Vibrio carchariae
ABSTRACT The present study investigated the effect of Eriobotrya japonica extracts at 0%, 0.1%, 1.0%, and 2.0% doses supplementation with feed on non-specific immune response, hematological and biochemical profile, and disease resistance against Vibrio carchariae in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus at weeks 1, 2, and 4. The white blood cell (WBC) significantly increased in fish fed with 0.1%, 1.0%, and 2.0% diets on weeks 1 and 2 when compared to the control. However, the glucose always decreased from the control except on week 2 against pathogen. The serum total protein, albumin, and globulin significantly increased at week 2 but they did not changed significantly at weeks 1 and 4. The superoxide anion, lymphokines production index, and phogocytosis did not significantly increased in any diet on the first week whereas it was significantly enhanced in 1.0% and 2.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 4 against V. carchariae when compared to control. All diets significantly enhanced the serum lysozyme activity, bactericidal activity, and haemolytic complement activity from weeks 1-4 as compared to control. The serum agglutinating antibody titre did not significantly enhance on the first week whereas it was significantly enhanced on weeks 2 and 4. Fish fed with 1.0% and 2.0% doses diets was found lower mortality than 0.1% diet. Thus, this study suggested that 1.0% and 2.0% doses supplementation diets could be advocated to enhance the immune response and production disease from V. carchariae in E. bruneus.
SourceAvailable from: Miriam Reverter[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aquaculture is the main source to increase fish supply. Fast development of aquaculture and increasing fish demand lead to intensification of fish culture, magnifying stressors for fish and thus heightening the risk of disease. Until now, chemotherapy has been widely used to prevent and treat disease outbreaks, although use of chemical drugs has multiple negative impacts on environment and human health e.g. resistant bacterial strains and residual accumulation in tissue. Hence, disease management in aquaculture should concentrate on environmentally friendly and lasting methods. Recently, increasing attention is being paid to the use of plant products for disease control in aquaculture as an alternative to chemical treatments. Plant products have been reported to stimulate appetite and promote weight gain, to act as immunostimulant and to have antibacterial and anti-parasitic (virus, protozoans, monogeneans) properties in fish and shellfish aquaculture due to active molecules such as alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins and flavonoids. However, as it is a relatively emerging practice there is still little knowledge on the long-term effects of plant extracts on fish physiology as well as a lack of homogenization in the extract preparation and fish administration of the plant extracts. This article aims to review the studies carried out on the use of plant products on fish aquaculture and their biological effects on fish such as growth promoter, immunostimulant, antibacterial and anti-parasitic. It also intends to evaluate the current state of the art, the methods used and the problems encountered in their application to the aquaculture industry.Aquaculture 09/2014; 433:50–61. DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.05.048 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cinnamaldehyde, which is extracted from cinnamon, is a natural compound with activity against bacteria and a modulatory immune function. However, the antibacterial activity and immunostimulation of cinnamaldehyde in fish has not been well investigated due to the compound’s poor water solubility. Thus, liposome-encapsulated cinnamaldehyde (LEC) was used to evaluate the effects of cinnamaldehyde on in vitro antibacterial activity against aquatic pathogens and in vivo immunity and protection parameters against Vibrio vulnificus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) as well as bactericidal agar plate assay results demonstrated the effective bacteriostatic and bactericidal potency of LEC against Aeromonas hydrophila, V. vulnificus, and S. agalactiae, as well as the antibiotic-resistant Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. Bacteria challenge test results demonstrated that LEC significantly enhances the survival rate and inhibits bacterial growth in zebrafish infected with A. hydrophila, V. vulnificus, and S. agalactiae. A gene expression study using a real-time PCR showed that LEC immersion-treated zebrafish had increased endogenous interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-15, IL-21, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (INF)-γ expression in vivo. After the zebrafish were infected with V. vulnificus or S. agalactiae, the LEC immersion treatment suppressed the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-15, NF-κb, and TNF-α and induced IL-10 and C3b expression. These findings demonstrate that cinnamaldehyde exhibits antimicrobial activity against aquatic pathogens, even antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and immune-stimulating effects to protect the host’s defenses against pathogen infection in bacteria-infected zebrafish. These results suggest that LEC could be used as an antimicrobial agent and immunostimulant to protect bacteria-infected fish in aquaculture.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2014.02.024 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effect of Ficus carica polysaccharide (FCP), isolated from the fruit of F. carica L., at 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% doses supplementation with feed on genes Interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression in blood, humoral innate immune parameters and resistant to Flavobacterium columnare of grass carp at weeks 1, 2 and 3. The results revealed that administration of FCP significantly (P < 0.05) up regulated IL-1β and TNF-α gene expression. HSP70 gene expression was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in FCP-fed fish at the end of trial. The serum total protein, albumin and globulin did not significantly increased in any diet on the first week whereas it was significantly enhanced in 0.5% and 1.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 3 when compared to control. The serum complement C3 was significantly (P < 0.05) increased on weeks 1 and 2 when compared to control, however, no significant difference was found in this activity after 3 weeks of treatment. All diets significantly enhanced the serum lysozyme activity, bactericidal activity from weeks 1-2 as compared to control. Grass carp fed with FCP showed remarkably higher resistance against F. columnare (60% survival) compared to the control group (30% survival). These results confirm that FCP can up regulate immune related genes expression, stimulates immune response that per se enhances disease resistance in grass carp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 11/2014; 42(1):132-137. DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2014.10.037 · 2.96 Impact Factor