Lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid induce different immune responses in the bovine mammary gland.
ABSTRACT Different pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, can be responsible for different outcomes of mastitis; that is, acute and severe or chronic and subclinical. These differences in the disease could be related to different mammary responses to the pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine if intramammary challenge with the endotoxins lipopolysaccharide (LPS), from E. coli, and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), from Staph. aureus, induce different immune responses in vivo in milk cells and mammary tissue. To provide a reference level for comparing the challenge and to show the different stimulation of the mammary immune system on a quantitatively similar level, dosages of LPS and LTA were chosen that induced an increase of somatic cells in milk to similar maxima. One udder quarter in each of 21 lactating dairy cows was challenged with 0.2 μg of LPS or 20 μg of LTA. From these quarters and from respective control quarters, milk cells or tissue biopsies were obtained at 0, 6, and 12h relative to the challenge to measure mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), IL-1β, IL-8, lactoferrin, and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted). Furthermore, if no biopsies were performed, hourly milk samples were taken for measurement of somatic cell count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and TNFα. Somatic cell count increased in all treatments to similar maxima with LPS and LTA treatments. Concentrations of TNFα in milk increased with LPS but not with LTA. The activity of LDH in milk increased in both treatments and was more pronounced with LPS than with LTA. The mRNA expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-8, and RANTES showed increases in milk cells, and LPS was a stronger inducer than LTA. Lactoferrin mRNA expression decreased in milk cells with LPS and LTA treatments. The measured factors did not change in either treatment in mammary tissue. Challenge of udder quarters with dosages of LPS and LTA that induce similar increases in SCC stimulate the appearance of different immune factor patterns. This dissimilar response to LPS and LTA may partly explain the different course and intensity of mastitis after infection with E. coli and Staph. aureus, respectively.
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ABSTRACT: Mastitis, the inflammation of mammary glands resulting from bacterial infection, disrupts milk production in lactating mammary glands. In this study, we injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the endotoxins from Escherichia coli into mouse mammary glands to disrupt milk production, and we investigated the influence of LPS on nutrient uptake, synthesis, and secretion processes for milk component production in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). The expression of genes relevant to the three-staged milk component production process (nutrient uptake, synthesis, and secretion of milk components) were down-regulated within 12 h after LPS injection in AEC. The internalization of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) from the basolateral membrane to the cytoplasm occurred in accordance with the down-regulation of gene expression 3 h after LPS injection. The abnormal localization of adipophilin and beta-casein was also observed in the LPS-injected mammary glands. SLC7A1, an amino acid transporter, was up-regulated 3 and 6 h after LPS injection. Furthermore, the inactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the activation of STAT3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB) occurred 3 h after LPS injection. These results indicate that the nutrient uptake, synthesis, and secretion of milk components in AEC are rapidly shut down in the lactating mammary glands after LPS injection.Veterinary Research 12/2013; 44(1):119. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is a major mastitis-causing pathogen in dairy cows. The latex agglutination-based Staphaurex test allows bovine S. aureus strains to be grouped into Staphaurex latex agglutination test (SLAT)-negative [SLAT(-)] and SLAT-positive [SLAT(+)] isolates. Virulence and resistance gene profiles within SLAT(-) isolates are highly similar, but differ largely from those of SLAT(+) isolates. Notably, specific genetic changes in important virulence factors were detected in SLAT(-) isolates. Based on the molecular data, it is assumed that SLAT(+) strains are more virulent than SLAT(-) strains. The objective of this study was to investigate if SLAT(-) and SLAT(+) strains can differentially induce an immune response with regard to their adhesive capacity to epithelial cells in the mammary gland and in turn, could play a role in the course of mastitis. Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) were challenged with suspensions of heat inactivated SLAT(+) (n = 3) and SLAT(-) (n = 3) strains isolated from clinical bovine mastitis cases. After 1, 6, and 24 h, cells were harvested and mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, RANTES, SAA, lactoferrin, GM-CSF, COX-2, and TLR-2) was evaluated by reverse transcription and quantitative PCR. Transcription (ΔΔCT) of most measured factors was induced in challenged bMEC for 6 and 24 h. Interestingly, relative mRNA levels were higher (P<0.05) in response to SLAT(+) compared to SLAT(-) strains. In addition, adhesion assays on bMEC also showed significant differences between SLAT(+) and SLAT(-) strains. The present study clearly shows that these two S. aureus strain types cause a differential immune response of bMEC and exhibit differences in their adhesion capacity in vitro. This could reflect differences in the severity of mastitis that the different strain types may induce.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87374. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The distal compartments of the udder are the first to interact with invading pathogens. The regulatory and effector functions of two major teat regions [Fürstenberg's rosette (FR); teat cistern (TC)] are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to establish an in vitro model with explants of the FR and the TC to analyse their response towards Escherichia coli LPS and Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Quantitative stereological analysis confirmed differences in the cellular composition of FR and TC explants. Chemokine (CXCL8, CCL5, CCL20) and TNF-α mRNA were expressed at low levels in both locations. Explant stimulation with LPS increased the mRNA abundance of all tested chemokines and TNF-α. Stimulation with LTA only induced CCL20 and CXCL8. LPS- and LTA-stimulated explant supernatants contained CXCL8 and CXCL3. Supernatants significantly attracted neutrophils in vitro. Compared with TC, the FR showed high constitutive mRNA expression of S100 proteins (A8, A9, A12). In the TC, both LPS and LTA significantly induced S100A8, whereas S100A9 and S100A12 expression was only induced by LPS. The novel model system underpins the role of the teat for recognising pathogens and shaping a pathogen- and location-specific immune response.Innate immunity. 08/2014;