Different pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, can be responsible for different outcomes of mastitis; that is, acute and severe or chronic and subclinical. These differences in the disease could be related to different mammary responses to the pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine if intramammary challenge with the endotoxins lipopolysaccharide (LPS), from E. coli, and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), from Staph. aureus, induce different immune responses in vivo in milk cells and mammary tissue. To provide a reference level for comparing the challenge and to show the different stimulation of the mammary immune system on a quantitatively similar level, dosages of LPS and LTA were chosen that induced an increase of somatic cells in milk to similar maxima. One udder quarter in each of 21 lactating dairy cows was challenged with 0.2 μg of LPS or 20 μg of LTA. From these quarters and from respective control quarters, milk cells or tissue biopsies were obtained at 0, 6, and 12h relative to the challenge to measure mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), IL-1β, IL-8, lactoferrin, and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted). Furthermore, if no biopsies were performed, hourly milk samples were taken for measurement of somatic cell count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and TNFα. Somatic cell count increased in all treatments to similar maxima with LPS and LTA treatments. Concentrations of TNFα in milk increased with LPS but not with LTA. The activity of LDH in milk increased in both treatments and was more pronounced with LPS than with LTA. The mRNA expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-8, and RANTES showed increases in milk cells, and LPS was a stronger inducer than LTA. Lactoferrin mRNA expression decreased in milk cells with LPS and LTA treatments. The measured factors did not change in either treatment in mammary tissue. Challenge of udder quarters with dosages of LPS and LTA that induce similar increases in SCC stimulate the appearance of different immune factor patterns. This dissimilar response to LPS and LTA may partly explain the different course and intensity of mastitis after infection with E. coli and Staph. aureus, respectively.
"However, it remains unclear how and when the three-staged milk component production process is inhibited in mastitis. In this study, we injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the endotoxins from Escherichia coli into mouse mammary glands to disrupt milk production because intramammary administration of LPS is a well-established method for experimental induction of mastitis under defined conditions to study the immune response of the mammary gland in cows [32-34]. AEC directly bind to LPS via the LPS-specific receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 [31,35]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mastitis, the inflammation of mammary glands resulting from bacterial infection, disrupts milk production in lactating mammary glands. In this study, we injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the endotoxins from Escherichia coli into mouse mammary glands to disrupt milk production, and we investigated the influence of LPS on nutrient uptake, synthesis, and secretion processes for milk component production in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). The expression of genes relevant to the three-staged milk component production process (nutrient uptake, synthesis, and secretion of milk components) were down-regulated within 12 h after LPS injection in AEC. The internalization of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) from the basolateral membrane to the cytoplasm occurred in accordance with the down-regulation of gene expression 3 h after LPS injection. The abnormal localization of adipophilin and beta-casein was also observed in the LPS-injected mammary glands. SLC7A1, an amino acid transporter, was up-regulated 3 and 6 h after LPS injection. Furthermore, the inactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the activation of STAT3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB) occurred 3 h after LPS injection. These results indicate that the nutrient uptake, synthesis, and secretion of milk components in AEC are rapidly shut down in the lactating mammary glands after LPS injection.
Veterinary Research 12/2013; 44(1):119. DOI:10.1186/1297-9716-44-119 · 2.82 Impact Factor
"Values represent means ± SEM. Color version available in the online PDF. the mammary gland (Pfaffl et al., 2003; Schukken et al., 2003; Wellnitz et al., 2011). Interestingly, the increase in milk somatic cells was less pronounced in LPS quarters in HyperB than in the control group. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic adaptations during negative energy and nutrient balance in dairy cows are thought to cause impaired immune function and hence increased risk of infectious diseases, including mastitis. Characteristic adaptations mostly occurring in early lactation are an elevation of plasma ketone bodies and free fatty acids (nonesterified fatty acids, NEFA) and diminished glucose concentration. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of elevated plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at simultaneously even or positive energy balance and thus normal plasma NEFA and glucose on factors related to the immune system in liver and mammary gland of dairy cows. In addition, we investigated the effect of elevated plasma BHBA and intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on the mammary immune response. Thirteen dairy cows were infused either with BHBA (HyperB, n = 5) to induce hyperketonemia (1.7 mmol/L) or with a 0.9% saline solution (NaCl, n = 8) for 56 h. Two udder quarters were injected with 200 μg of LPS after 48 h of infusion. Rectal temperature (RT) and somatic cell counts (SCC) were measured before, at 48 h after the start of infusions, and hourly during the LPS challenge. The mRNA abundance of factors related to the immune system was measured in hepatic and mammary tissue biopsies 1 wk before and 48 h after the start of the infusion, and additionally in mammary tissue at 56 h of infusion (8 h after LPS administration). At 48 h of infusion in HyperB, the mRNA abundance of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the mammary gland was increased and that of haptoglobin (Hp) tended to be increased. Rectal temperature, SCC, and mRNA abundance of candidate genes in the liver were not affected by the BHBA infusion until 48 h. During the following LPS challenge, RT and SCC increased in both groups. However, SCC increased less in HyperB than in NaCl. Quarters infused with LPS showed a more pronounced increase of mRNA abundance of IL-8 and IL-10 in HyperB than in NaCl. The results demonstrate that an increase of plasma BHBA upregulates acute phase proteins in the mammary gland. In response to intramammary LPS challenge, elevated BHBA diminishes the influx of leukocytes from blood into milk, perhaps by via modified cytokine synthesis. Results indicate that increased ketone body plasma concentrations may play a crucial role in the higher mastitis susceptibility in early lactation.
Journal of Dairy Science 11/2013; DOI:10.3168/jds.2013-7222 · 2.57 Impact Factor
"Intramammary administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a typical endotoxin from E. coli, is a well-established method for the experimental induction of mammary inflammation under defined conditions in order to study the immune response of the mammary gland in cows and mice (Barham et al. 2012; Connelly et al. 2010; Wellnitz et al. 2011). In this study, we prepared the mouse mammary-inflammation model by injecting LPS and then investigated the early response of alveolar epithelial cells, myoepithelial cells, macrovascular endothelial cells, adipocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils by immunohistochemical analysis with specific antibodies as markers of each type of cell. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammary alveolus is a highly specialized structure that secretes milk for suckling infants during lactation. The secreting alveolus consists in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and myoepithelial cells and is surrounded by microvascular endothelial cells, adipocytes and several immune cell types such as macrophages and neutrophils. During normal lactation, these cells play distinct roles needed to maintain the secretory ability of the mammary alveolus. However, inflammation resulting from pathogenic bacterial infections causes structural and functional regression of the secreting alveolus in the lactating mammary gland. We initiated artificial inflammation in the mammary glands of lactating mice by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as a mammary inflammation model and investigated, by immunohistochemical analysis, the early response of the cells constituting and surrounding the alveolus. Some AECs sloughed away from the alveolar epithelial layer and showed progression of apoptosis detected by immunostaining of cleaved caspase-3 after LPS injection. Adipocytes exhibited transient shrinkage and re-accumulation of lipid droplets, although the numbers of adipocytes did not demonstrate a significant difference. Activation of F4/80-positive cells around the mammary alveolus was observed 3 h after LPS injection. However, the recruitment of CD11b-positive cells into the alveolar lumen was not observed until 12 h after LPS injection. Myoepithelial cells were contracted after LPS injection. LPS injection around the alveolus did not induce any detectable structural changes in capillaries surrounding the alveolus. Thus, cell-specific behavior and tissue remodeling of the alveolus occur after LPS injection in a time-dependent manner.
Cell and Tissue Research 07/2013; 354(2). DOI:10.1007/s00441-013-1688-5 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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