Mitotic Exit Control: A Space and Time Odyssey
ABSTRACT The mitotic exit network (MEN), a protein kinase cascade under the switch-like control of the small GTPase Tem1, triggers exit from mitosis in budding yeast. Now it emerges that signals from both Tem1 and the yeast Polo kinase Cdc5 converge onto the MEN kinase Cdc15 to accurately restrict MEN activation to late mitosis.
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ABSTRACT: Alison D Walters, Christopher K May, Emma S Dauster, Bertrand P Cinquin, Elizabeth A Smith, Xavier Robellet, Damien D’Amours, Carolyn A Larabell, Orna Cohen-Fix Abnormal nuclear size and shape are hallmarks of aging and cancer [ 1, 2 ]. However, the mechanisms regulating nuclear morphology and nuclear envelope (NE) expansion are poorly understood. In metazoans, the NE disassembles prior to chromosome segregation and reassembles at the end of mitosis [ 3 ]. In budding yeast, the NE remains intact. The nucleus elongates as chromosomes segregate and then divides at the end of mitosis to form two daughter nuclei without NE disassembly. The budding yeast nucleus also undergoes remodeling during a mitotic arrest; the NE continues to expand despite the pause in chromosome segregation, forming a nuclear extension, or “flare,” that encompasses the nucleolus [ 4 ]. The distinct nucleolar localization of the mitotic flare indicates that the NE is compartmentalized and that there is a mechanism by which NE expansion is confined to the region adjacent to the nucleolus. Here we show that mitotic flare formation is dependent on the yeast polo kinase Cdc5. This function of Cdc5 is independent of its known mitotic roles, including rDNA condensation. High-resolution imaging revealed that following Cdc5 inactivation, nuclei expand isometrically rather than forming a flare, indicating that Cdc5 is needed for NE compartmentalization. Even in an uninterrupted cell cycle, a small NE expansion occurs adjacent to the nucleolus prior to anaphase in a Cdc5-dependent manner. Our data provide the first evidence that polo kinase, a key regulator of mitosis [ 5 ], plays a role in regulating nuclear morphology and NE expansion.Current Biology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2014.10.029 · 9.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Candida albicans demonstrates three main growth morphologies: yeast, pseudohyphal and true hyphal forms. Cell separation is distinct in these morphological forms and the process of separation is closely linked to the completion of mitosis and cytokinesis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the small GTPase Tem1 is known to initiate the mitotic exit network, a signalling pathway involved in signalling the end of mitosis and initiating cytokinesis and cell separation. Here we have characterised the role of Tem1 in C. albicans, and demonstrate that it is essential for mitotic exit and cytokinesis, and that this essential function is signalled through the kinase Cdc15. Cells depleted of Tem1 displayed highly polarised growth but ultimately failed to both complete cytokinesis and re-enter the cell cycle following nuclear division. Consistent with its role in activating the mitotic exit network Tem1 localises to spindle pole bodies in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Ultimately, the mitotic exit network in C. albicans appears to co-ordinate the sequential processes of mitotic exit, cytokinesis and cell separation.Fungal Genetics and Biology 08/2014; 69. DOI:10.1016/j.fgb.2014.06.007 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sequential transfer of information from one enzyme to the next within the confines of a protein kinase scaffold enhances signal transduction. Though frequently considered to be inert organizational elements, two recent reports implicate kinase-scaffolding proteins as active participants in signal relay.Current biology: CB 06/2013; 23(12):R515-R517. DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2013.05.002 · 9.92 Impact Factor