Characterization, Mapping, and Distribution of the Two XMRV Parental Proviruses

Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Genetics Program, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.44). 01/2012; 86(1):328-38. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.06022-11
Source: PubMed


Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was previously reported to be associated with human prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. Our groups recently showed that XMRV was created through recombination between two endogenous murine retroviruses, PreXMRV-1 and PreXMRV-2, during the passaging of a prostate tumor xenograft in nude mice. Here, multiple approaches that led to the identification of PreXMRV-2, as well as the distribution of both parental proviruses among different mouse species, are described. The chromosomal loci of both proviruses were determined in the mouse genome, and integration site information was used to analyze the distribution of both proviruses in 48 laboratory mouse strains and 46 wild-derived strains. The strain distributions of PreXMRV-1 and PreXMRV-2 are quite different, the former being found predominantly in Asian mice and the latter in European mice, making it unlikely that the two XMRV ancestors could have recombined independently in the wild to generate an infectious virus. XMRV was not present in any of the mouse strains tested, and among the wild-derived mouse strains analyzed, not a single mouse carried both parental proviruses. Interestingly, PreXMRV-1 and PreXMRV-2 were found together in three laboratory strains, Hsd nude, NU/NU, and C57BR/cd, consistent with previous data that the recombination event that led to the generation of XMRV could have occurred only in the laboratory. The three laboratory strains carried the Xpr1(n) receptor variant nonpermissive to XMRV and xenotropic murine leukemia virus (X-MLV) infection, suggesting that the xenografted human tumor cells were required for the resulting XMRV recombinant to infect and propagate.

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Available from: Vinay Pathak, Oct 10, 2015
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    • "Interestingly, they found that heterologous Env expressed on pseudotyped MLV is more sensitive to loss after cholesterol depletion; they proposed a weaker association heterologous Env proteins with MLV particles [34]. XMRV appears to have been generated by recombination between two endogenous viruses [26], [35]. Whether this recombination event resulted in less stable association between Env and core viral proteins is unknown. "
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    ABSTRACT: Membrane cholesterol plays an important role in replication of HIV-1 and other retroviruses. Here, we report that the gammaretrovirus XMRV requires cholesterol and lipid rafts for infection and replication. We demonstrate that treatment of XMRV with a low concentration (10 mM) of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2OHpβCD) partially depleted virion-associated cholesterol resulting in complete inactivation of the virus. This effect could not be reversed by adding cholesterol back to treated virions. Further analysis revealed that following cholesterol depletion, virus-associated Env protein was significantly reduced while the virions remained intact and retained core proteins. Increasing concentrations of 2OHpβCD (≥20 mM) resulted in loss of the majority of virion-associated cholesterol, causing disruption of membrane integrity and loss of internal Gag proteins and viral RNA. Depletion of cholesterol from XMRV-infected cells significantly reduced virus release, suggesting that cholesterol and intact lipid rafts are required for the budding process of XMRV. These results suggest that unlike glycoproteins of other retroviruses, the association of XMRV glycoprotein with virions is highly dependent on cholesterol and lipid rafts.
    PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e48013. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0048013 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "PreXMRV-2 is present as a single copy in the genomes of many (e.g. Harlan nu/nu mice) but not all mouse strains and has been identified in a few M. m. domesticus mice [26,42]. Thus at the time of endogenization, the then-exogenous preXMRV-2 likely did not encode glyco-gag. "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the unique features of gammaretroviruses is that they contain an additional extended form of Gag, glyco-gag, which initiates in the leader sequence. MuLV glyco-gag, gPr80Gag, promotes retrovirus replication and disease progression. Although virtually all infectious MuLVs encode glyco-gag, XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) lacks the classical gPr80Gag sequence. We examined XMRV to determine if its leader sequence contains glyco-gag activity, whether the presence of conventional gPr80Gag affects replication of XMRV, and we describe the evolution of glyco-gag-deficient MuLVs in Mus. We introduced several mutations disrupting two putative but noncanonical glyco-gag proteins in the leader sequence region in XMRV and found that those mutations did not affect virus release nor susceptibility to the antiviral activity of hA3G (human APOBEC3G). A chimeric XMRV encoding the Moloney MuLV (M-MuLV) leader sequence (MXMRV) demonstrated that M-MuLV glyco-gag facilitated MXMRV release and increased infectivity. Infectivity assays with several cell lines showed that glyco-gag increases XMRV infectivity in all cell lines tested, but the level of this increase varies in different cell lines. Because MuLV glyco-gag counteracts mouse APOBEC3, we investigated whether M-MuLV glyco-gag enhances XMRV infection by counteracting human APOBEC3. Comparison of hAPOBEC3 isoforms expressed in different cell lines indicated that hA3B was the most likely candidate for a restrictive hA3. However over-expression of hA3B showed no enhanced restriction of infection by XMRV compared to MXMRV. Endogenous MuLVs in the sequenced mouse genome were screened for canonical glyco-gag, which was identified in two clades of xenotropic MuLVs (X-MuLVs) and ecotropic MuLVs, but not in other X-MuLVs or in any polytropic MuLVs. M-MuLV glyco-gag facilitates XMRV replication, and the leader sequence region in XMRV does not encode proteins equivalent to M-MuLV glyco-gag. The fact that the ability of glyco-gag to enhance XMRV infection varies in different cell lines suggests a glyco-gag sensitive restrictive factor that further reduces XMRV infectivity. The M-MuLV glyco-gag enhancement for XMRV replication is through a hAPOBEC3 independent mechanism. The absence of glyco-gag in MuLVs carried by western European mice suggests that loss of this sequence is a relatively recent event with limited subspecies distribution.
    Retrovirology 07/2012; 9(1):58. DOI:10.1186/1742-4690-9-58 · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    • "However, several subsequent studies have found no link with XMRV and this association has remained controversial. Whilst this manuscript was in preparation a study by Paprotka et al. demonstrated the likely recombinant origin of XMRV [4]; these ancestral viruses have since been further characterised [5]. Recently, Martinez-Fierro and colleagues detected human papilloma viruses (HPV) in 20% of PC cases by PCR [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of specific infections in UK prostate cancer patients was investigated. Serum from 84 patients and 62 controls was tested for neutralisation of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) Envelope. No reactivity was found in the patient samples. In addition, a further 100 prostate DNA samples were tested for XMRV, BK virus, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papilloma viruses by nucleic acid detection techniques. Despite demonstrating DNA integrity and assay sensitivity, we failed to detect the presence of any of these agents in DNA samples, bar one sample that was weakly positive for HPV16. Therefore we conclude that these infections are absent in this typical cohort of men with prostate cancer.
    PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e34221. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0034221 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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