Clinically Relevant Single Gene or Intragenic Deletions Encompassing Critical Neurodevelopmental Genes in Patients With Developmental Delay, Mental Retardation, and/or Autism Spectrum Disorders
ABSTRACT Recent studies suggest that copy number variations (CNVs) encompassing several genes involved in neurodevelopmental pathways are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric phenotypes, including developmental delay (DD), mental retardation (MR), and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here we present eight patients in a cohort of approximately 1,200 patients referred for clinical array CGH testing for various neurodevelopmental phenotypes,whowere identified to carry small (<1.0Mb with the majority <500 kb) either total gene or intragenic deletions encompassing critical synaptic and other neurodevelopmental genes. The presentations of these patients included variable degrees of DD, speech problems, learning disabilities, MR, autistic-like features, and mild non-specific dysmorphic features. These genes belong to four functional categories, including neuronal transcription factor genes (NFIA at 1p31.3, MEF2C at 5q14.3, andCAMAT1at 1p36.23p36.31), neuron-specific splicing factor genes (RBFOX1 at 16p13.2p13.3), genes involved in synapse formation and maintenance (CNTNAP2 at 7q35 and LRFN5 at 14q21.2), and genes involved in neurotransmission (CHRNA7 at 15q13.3 and IL1RAPL1 at Xp21.2p21.3). Our report expands the list of neurodevelopmental genes deleted in various neurobehavioral phenotypes, expands the phenotypes caused by haploinsufficiency of previously reported critical neurodevelopmental genes, and elucidates the clinical relevance and need for careful clinical interpretation of some small CNVs<500 kb. This report also suggests that small clinically relevant deletions encompassing critical synaptic and other neurodevelopmental genes can present clinically with various neurobehavioral phenotypes, which implies the existence of overlapping neuronal pathways in the pathogenesis of these phenotypes.
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- "It should also be noted that a metabolite of GTS-21 has weak activity at 5-HT 3 receptors , so the current study cannot rule out off-target effects. a7 nAChRs are implicated in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders that can feature comorbidity with aggressive behavior, including autism spectrum disorder   , 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome that frequently presents with autism and aggression    , schizophrenia , and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder . "
ABSTRACT: Aggression is frequently comorbid with neuropsychiatric conditions and is a predictor of worse outcomes, yet current pharmacotherapies are insufficient and have debilitating side effects, precluding broad use. Multiple models of aggression across species suggest that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist nicotine has anti-aggressive (serenic) properties. Here we demonstrate dose-dependent serenic effects of acute nicotine administration in three distinct mouse strains: C57BL/6, BALB/c, and CD1. While acute nicotine administration (0.25mg/kg) modestly reduced solitary homecage locomotion, this could not account for nicotine's serenic effects since social encounters eliminated the hypolocomotor effect, and nicotine did not alter social interaction times. Pretreatment with the homomeric (α7 subunit) nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (5mg/kg), but not the heteromeric (β2 or β4 subunit-containing) nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE, 3mg/kg), blocked the serenic effects of nicotine. By contrast, pretreatment with DHβE blocked the effect of acute nicotine administration on locomotion, uncoupling nicotine's serenic and hypolocomotor effects. Finally, the α7 nAChR partial agonist GTS-21 reduced aggression in C57BL/6 mice. These results support the idea that acute nicotine administration has serenic effects and provide evidence for specificity of this effect distinct from effects on locomotion. Furthermore, pharmacological studies suggest that activation of α7 nAChRs underlies the serenic effects of nicotine. Further studies of nAChRs could enhance understanding of the neurobiology of aggression and may lead to the development of novel, more specific treatments for pathological aggression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Biochemical pharmacology 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2015.07.019 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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- "Another example of the possible protecting effect of X-inactivation is showcased by the gene IL1RAFL1. This gene is located on Xp22.1–p21.3 and codes for interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 and has been associated with ASD (Allen-Brady et al., 2010; Bhat et al., 2008; Mikhail et al., 2011; Piton et al., 2008; Yoshida et al., 2011). Boys with an alteration in the IL1RAPL1 gene are severely affected, whereas the phenotypes of carrier women vary widely, which can potentially be explained by mosaicism and X-inactivation skewing. "
ABSTRACT: The male predominance of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is one of the best-known, and at the same time, one of the least understood characteristics of these disorders. In this paper we review genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, and environmental mechanisms underlying this male preponderance. Sex-specific effects of Y-linked genes (including SRY expression leading to testicular development), balanced and skewed X-inactivation, genes that escape X-inactivation, parent-of-origin allelic imprinting, and the hypothetical heterochromatin sink are reviewed. These mechanisms likely contribute to etiology, instead of being simply causative to ASD. Environments, both internal and external, also play important roles in ASD's etiology. Early exposure to androgenic hormones and early maternal immune activation comprise environmental factors affecting sex-specific susceptibility to ASD. The gene-environment interactions underlying ASD, suggested here, implicate early prenatal stress as being especially detrimental to boys with a vulnerable genotype.Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 04/2014; 35(3). DOI:10.1016/j.yfrne.2014.03.006 · 7.58 Impact Factor
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- "Plcb1 is of critical importance in codifying neurotransmitter receptors and is associated with schizophrenia [46,47]. It is particularly noteworthy that the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L-type, alpha 1C subunit (Cacna1c) gene contributes to many psychiatric disorders [55,56], specifically schizophrenia [40-42] and bipolar disorder [43-45]. "
ABSTRACT: DNA methylation has been viewed as the most highly characterized epigenetic mark for genome regulation and development. Postnatal brains appear to exhibit stimulus-induced methylation changes because of factors such as environment, lifestyle, and diet (nutrition). The purpose of this study was to examine how extensively the brain DNA methylome is regulated by nutrition in early life. By quantifying the total amount of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in the thalamus and the hippocampus of postnatal malnourished mice and normal mice, we found the two regions showed differences in global DNA methylation status. The methylation level in the thalamus was much higher than that in the hippocampus. Then, we used a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based method (MSCC) to detect the whole genome methylation of the two regions in malnourished mice and normal mice. Notably, we found that in the thalamus, 500 discriminable variations existed and that approximately 60% were related to neuronal development or psychiatric diseases. Pathway analyses of the corresponding genes highlighted changes for 9 genes related to long-term potentiation (5.3-fold enrichment, P = 0.033). Our findings may help to indicate the genome-wide DNA methylation status of different brain regions and the effects of malnutrition on brain DNA methylation. The results also indicate that postnatal malnutrition may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders.BMC Neuroscience 02/2014; 15(1):31. DOI:10.1186/1471-2202-15-31 · 2.85 Impact Factor