Guanidination of notexin promotes its phospholipase A(2) activity-independent fusogenicity on vesicles with lipid-supplied negative curvature.
ABSTRACT To address the requirement of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity in membrane fusion events and membrane perturbation activity of notexin and guanidinated notexin (Gu-notexin), the present study was conducted. Notexin and Gu-notexin did not show PLA(2) activity after the removal of Ca(2+) with EDTA. Metal-free notexin and Gu-notexin were found to induce membrane leakage and fusion of phospholipid vesicles. Fusogenic activity of native and modified notexin correlated positively with their membrane-damaging activity underlying the deprivation of PLA(2) activity. Compared with Ca(2+)-bound Gu-notexin, fusogenicity of metal-free Gu-notexin was notably increased by incorporation of cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate, phosphatidylethanolamine, α-tocopherol and phosphatidic acid that supplied negative curvature into phospholipid bilayer. The ability of Gu-notexin to induce membrane fusion of vesicles with lipid-supplied negative curvature was higher than that of notexin regardless of the absence or presence of Ca(2+). Consistently, metal-free Gu-notexin markedly induced membrane fusion of red blood cells (RBCs) compared with metal-free notexin, and fusion activity of metal-free Gu-notexin on cholesterol-depleted RBCs notably reduced. Compared with notexin, Gu-notexin highly induced uptake of calcein-loaded phosphatidylcholine (PC)/cholesterol and PC/cholesterol sulfate vesicles by K562 cells in the presence of EDTA. Taken together, our data suggest that notexin and Gu-notexin could induce vesicle leakage and fusion via a PLA(2) activity-independent mechanism, and guanidination promotes PLA(2) activity-independent fusogenicity of notexin on vesicles with lipid-supplied negative curvature.