Can Eliminating Risk Stratification Improve Medical Residents' Adherence to Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis?
ABSTRACT Hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common and preventable adverse event that most patients are at risk of developing during their hospital stay. VTE prophylactic anticoagulation (chemoprophylaxis) is the preferred pharmacological assignment for reducing risk of VTE, but it is underused in current practices involving risk stratification (RS) for VTE prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a protocol that eliminates the RS step (non-RS protocol) is more likely to lead residents to evidence-based VTE assignment than the currently used RS protocol. The non-RS protocol follows a methodology that reduces complexity by assuming that the risk of VTE is present and uses contraindications to determine appropriate VTE assignment.
In 2009, 41 medicine residents at the Nebraska Western Iowa Veterans Affairs clinic participated in an online comparison of two different protocols (RS and non-RS) for assigning chemoprophylaxis for VTE. Six validated, hypothetical patient scenarios were used to compare appropriate (evidence-based) VTE assignments for VTE and completion times for each protocol.
Statistical analyses found that the non-RS protocol produced significantly faster (P < .001) scenario completion times and significantly more (P < .001) appropriate VTE assignments than the RS protocol for four of the six patient scenarios.
This study used a new, streamlined protocol (non-RS), which improved VTE assignment and the use of chemoprophylaxis and simplified the process when compared with the use of a traditional RS protocol.
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ABSTRACT: Hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially fatal complication of hospitalisation, with meta-analyses and guidelines supporting the use of proven prophylactic measures (graduated compression stockings (GCS) and anticoagulants). Despite this, prophylaxis is underutilised and represents one of the largest gaps between evidence and current clinical practice. All episodes of VTE complicating hospitalisation were ascertained prospectively as part of a quality improvement programme over 3.5 years with a view to designing interventions to improve the use of prophylaxis and reduce the rate of VTE. Interventions initially centred upon highlighting the burden of VTE, the extent of failure to apply guideline evidence into practice, and the development and application of a hospital-wide risk assessment tool. Later interventions sought to build the risk-assessment tool into routine clinical care and enhanced feedback on VTE to clinical teams. The annual rate of VTE fell in all the years following the intervention (2001), from 2.57 per 1000 cost-weighted separations to a nadir of 1.87 in 2003, with the difference being statistically significant (RR 0.68, 0.47 to 0.99, p = 0.04). The proportion of patients receiving anticoagulant prophylaxis increased (48% to 74%, p = 0.01) but there was no change in the measured use of GCS. There was a marked increase in the use of risk assessment for VTE in the ward setting (7.7% to 100%, p<0.001) during the programme. Affordable and accessible interventions can improve the application of VTE prophylaxis guidelines into daily hospital care and are associated with reductions in this potentially life-threatening complication.Quality and Safety in Health Care 10/2009; 18(5):408-12. DOI:10.1136/qshc.2007.024778 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article discusses the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and is part of the Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Grade 1 recommendations are strong and indicate that the benefits do or do not outweigh risks, burden, and costs. Grade 2 suggestions imply that individual patient values may lead to different choices (for a full discussion of the grading, see the "Grades of Recommendation" chapter by Guyatt et al). Among the key recommendations in this chapter are the following: we recommend that every hospital develop a formal strategy that addresses the prevention of VTE (Grade 1A). We recommend against the use of aspirin alone as thromboprophylaxis for any patient group (Grade 1A), and we recommend that mechanical methods of thromboprophylaxis be used primarily for patients at high bleeding risk (Grade 1A) or possibly as an adjunct to anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis (Grade 2A). For patients undergoing major general surgery, we recommend thromboprophylaxis with a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH), or fondaparinux (each Grade 1A). We recommend routine thromboprophylaxis for all patients undergoing major gynecologic surgery or major, open urologic procedures (Grade 1A for both groups), with LMWH, LDUH, fondaparinux, or intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC). For patients undergoing elective hip or knee arthroplasty, we recommend one of the following three anticoagulant agents: LMWH, fondaparinux, or a vitamin K antagonist (VKA); international normalized ratio (INR) target, 2.5; range, 2.0 to 3.0 (each Grade 1A). For patients undergoing hip fracture surgery (HFS), we recommend the routine use of fondaparinux (Grade 1A), LMWH (Grade 1B), a VKA (target INR, 2.5; range, 2.0 to 3.0) [Grade 1B], or LDUH (Grade 1B). We recommend that patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty or HFS receive thromboprophylaxis for a minimum of 10 days (Grade 1A); for hip arthroplasty and HFS, we recommend continuing thromboprophylaxis > 10 days and up to 35 days (Grade 1A). We recommend that all major trauma and all spinal cord injury (SCI) patients receive thromboprophylaxis (Grade 1A). In patients admitted to hospital with an acute medical illness, we recommend thromboprophylaxis with LMWH, LDUH, or fondaparinux (each Grade 1A). We recommend that, on admission to the ICU, all patients be assessed for their risk of VTE, and that most receive thromboprophylaxis (Grade 1A).Chest 06/2008; 133(6 Suppl):381S-453S. DOI:10.1378/chest.08-0656 · 7.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We enrolled 5,451 patients with ultrasound-confirmed deep vein thrombosis (DVT), including 2,892 women and 2,559 men, from 183 United States sites in our prospective registry. The 5 most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (50%), surgery within 3 months (38%), immobility within 30 days (34%), cancer (32%), and obesity (27%). Of the 2,726 patients who had their DVT diagnosed while in the hospital, only 1,147 (42%) received prophylaxis within 30 days before diagnosis. (C) 2004 by Excerpta Medica, Inc.The American Journal of Cardiology 02/2004; 93(2):259-62. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.09.057 · 3.43 Impact Factor