Interventions to increase antiretroviral adherence in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of evaluation studies.
ABSTRACT The success of potent antiretroviral treatment for HIV infection is primarily determined by adherence. We systematically review the evidence of effectiveness of interventions to increase adherence to antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We identified 27 relevant reports from 26 studies of behavioural, cognitive, biological, structural, and combination interventions done between 2003 and 2010. Despite study diversity and limitations, evidence suggests that treatment supporters, directly observed therapy, mobile-phone text messages, diary cards, and food rations can effectively increase adherence in sub-Saharan Africa. However, some interventions are unlikely to have large or lasting effects, and others are effective only in specific settings. These findings emphasise the need for more research, particularly for randomised controlled trials, to examine the effect of context and specific features of intervention content on effectiveness. Future work should assess intervention targeting and selection of interventions based on behavioural theories relevant to sub-Saharan Africa.
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ABSTRACT: To characterize antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence across different programmes and examine the relationship between individual and programme characteristics and incomplete adherence among ART clients in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study. Systematically selected ART clients (≥18 years; on ART ≥6 months) attending 18 facilities in three countries (250 clients/facility) were interviewed. Client self-reports (3-day, 30-day, Case Index ≥48 consecutive hours of missed ART), healthcare provider estimates and the pharmacy medication possession ratio (MPR) were used to estimate ART adherence. Participants from two facilities per country underwent HIV RNA testing. Optimal adherence measures were selected on the basis of degree of association with concurrent HIV RNA dichotomized at less than or greater/equal to 1000 copies/ml. Multivariate regression analysis, adjusted for site-level clustering, assessed associations between incomplete adherence and individual and programme factors. A total of 4489 participants were included, of whom 1498 underwent HIV RNA testing. Nonadherence ranged from 3.2% missing at least 48 consecutive hours to 40.1% having an MPR of less than 90%. The percentage with HIV RNA at least 1000 copies/ml ranged from 7.2 to 17.2% across study sites (mean = 9.9%). Having at least 48 consecutive hours of missed ART was the adherence measure most strongly related to virologic failure. Factors significantly related to incomplete adherence included visiting a traditional healer, screening positive for alcohol abuse, experiencing more HIV symptoms, having an ART regimen without nevirapine and greater levels of internalized stigma. Results support more in-depth investigations of the role of traditional healers, and the development of interventions to address alcohol abuse and internalized stigma among treatment-experienced adult ART patients.AIDS (London, England) 01/2015; 29(3):361-71. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000543 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Real-time adherence monitoring is now possible through medication storage devices equipped with cellular technology. We assessed the effect of triggered cell phone reminders and counseling utilizing objective adherence data on antiretroviral (ART) adherence among Chinese HIV-infected patients. We provided ART patients in Nanning, China, with a medication device ("Wisepill") to monitor their ART adherence electronically. After 3 months, we randomized subjects within optimal (≥95%) and suboptimal (<95%) adherence strata to intervention vs. control arms. In months 4-9, intervention subjects received individualized reminders triggered by late dose-taking (no device-opening by 30 minutes past dose time), and counseling using device-generated data. Controls received no reminders or data-informed counseling. We compared post-intervention proportions achieving optimal adherence, mean adherence, and clinical outcomes. Of 120 subjects enrolled, 116 (96.7%) completed the trial. Pre-intervention, optimal adherence was similar in intervention vs. control arms (63.5% vs. 58.9%, respectively; p=0.60). In the last intervention month, 87.3% vs. 51.8% achieved optimal adherence (risk ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.3-2.2); mean adherence was 96.2% vs. 89.1% (p=0.003). Among pre-intervention suboptimal adherers, 78.3% vs. 33.3% (RR 2.4, CI 1.2-4.5) achieved optimal adherence; mean adherence was 93.3% vs. 84.7% (p=0.039). Proportions were 92.5% and 62.9% among optimal adherers, respectively (RR 1.5, CI 1.1-1.9); mean adherence was 97.8% vs. 91.7% (p=0.028). Post-intervention clinical outcomes were not significant. Real-time reminders significantly improved ART adherence in this population. This approach appears promising for managing HIV and other chronic diseases and warrants further investigation and adaptation in other settings.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2015; DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000651 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We sought to review the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) from studies included in a recent Cochrane review that reported a clinical and an adherence outcome, with at least 80% follow-up for 6 months or more. Data were extracted independently and in duplicate, with an adjudicator for disagreements. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Of 182 relevant studies in the Cochrane review, 49 were related to ART. Statistical pooling was not warranted due to heterogeneity in interventions, participants, treatments, adherence measures and outcomes. Many studies had high risk of bias in elements of design and outcome ascertainment. Only 10 studies improved both adherence and clinical outcomes. These used the following interventions: adherence counselling (two studies); a once-daily regimen (compared to twice daily); text messaging; web-based cognitive behavioral intervention; face-to-face multi-session intensive behavioral interventions (two studies); contingency management; modified directly observed therapy; and nurse-delivered home visits combined with telephone calls. Patient-related adherence interventions were the most frequently tested. Uniform adherence measures and higher quality studies of younger populations are encouraged.AIDS patient care and STDs 03/2015; DOI:10.1089/apc.2014.0308 · 3.58 Impact Factor