Satiety-relevant sensory qualities enhance the satiating effects of mixed carbohydrate-protein preloads

School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 12/2011; 94(6):1410-7. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.111.011650
Source: PubMed


Orosensory cues such as food texture and flavor have been shown to play a role in satiation, but their role in satiety remains less clear.
The objective was to determine whether satiety-relevant orosensory cues enhance the satiating effects of energy in the context of beverage preloads.
The effects of 6 drink preloads that combined 2 amounts of energy [high energy (HE): 279 kcal; low energy (LE): 78 kcal] and 3 satiety-relevant sensory contexts [low sensory (LS), medium sensory (MS), and high sensory (HS)] on subsequent appetite and test meal intake were assessed in 36 healthy nonobese volunteers.
The ability of the preloads to modify appetite 30 min after consumption depended on both energy content and sensory context (P-interaction < 0.05), with hunger significantly being lower after consumption of the HE than after the LE preload in the HS context (P < 0.001), tending to be lower in the MS context (P = 0.08), but not different in the LS context. Food intake at lunch was lower after the HE than after the LE preloads (effect of energy P < 0.001), but this effect depended on sensory context (P < 0.005). The degree to which reduced test meal intake compensated for the added energy in the HE preloads was 88% in the HS context, which was significantly greater than in the MS (47%) and LS (18%) contexts.
Small changes in the sensory characteristics of drinks altered the degree to which added energy was satiating, which implies that nutrients become more satiating when they are predicted by relevant sensory cues such as thickness and creaminess. This trial was registered at as ISRCTN36258511.

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    • "The three test beverages were designed to deliver different combinations of energy content and sensory characteristics (thick texture and creamy flavour). Previous recipes, which have reliably demonstrated sensory– nutrient interaction effects on satiety (Yeomans & Chambers 2011; Chambers et al. 2013; McCrickerd et al. 2014a), were adapted to produce novel shelfstable powdered mixes that the participants could take home and combine with juice when required (Table 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Growing research suggests that a consumer's experience of satiety is influenced by information present at the time of, or before, food consumption. For example, making small modifications to the sensory characteristics of a high-energy beverage (specifically thickness and creaminess) enhances its impact on subsequent satiety. Previous research has examined these sensory-enhanced satiety effects in the laboratory but not in the ‘real world’. Therefore, the present study, using a cross-over design, compared the effects of ‘real world’ consumption of two high-energy versions of a beverage (sensory-enhanced and unenhanced) and a low-energy control beverage on satiety. Thirty-four volunteers were provided with shelf-stable dry powder mixes for the three test beverages, which varied in energy content and sensory characteristics, to which they added a commercially available juice. The volunteers prepared and consumed each beverage on eight occasions over a 3-week period at home. Controlled satiety testing occurred in the laboratory either side of this exposure period. Focus groups were also conducted to assess consumer attitudes towards ‘enhanced satiety’ products and claims. Results of the satiety study indicate that appetite sensations and subsequent food intake were lower following consumption of the sensory-enhanced high-energy beverage relative to the unenhanced and control versions, and that these effects were maintained following repeated product consumption in the ‘real world’. The focus groups highlighted that consumers are aware of sensory and cognitive influences on satiety, though noted that dieting populations might benefit most from enhanced satiety products. Implications for further research and the role of satiety for consumers and manufacturers are discussed.
    Nutrition Bulletin 09/2015; 40(3-3):187-198. DOI:10.1111/nbu.12152
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    • "This compensation effect was evident despite the relatively small energy difference between low- and high-energy conditions. Indeed, in previous studies compensation effects have only been apparent with larger energy differences between preloads( 23 , 40, 41 ). This suggests that moderate increases in the energy content of a food through the addition of protein and MSG, for example as a savoury snack, may reduce the likelihood of subsequent overconsumption. "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research suggests that monosodium glutamate (MSG) may have a biphasic effect on appetite, increasing appetite within a meal with its flavour-enhancing effect, but enhancing subsequent satiety due to its proposed role as a predictor of protein content. The present study explored this by assessing the impact of a 450 g soup preload differing in MSG concentration (1 % MSG added (MSG+) or no MSG (MSG–)) and nutrient content (low-energy control or high-energy carbohydrate or high-energy protein) on rated appetite and ad libitum intake of a test meal in thirty-five low-restraint male volunteers using a within-participant design. Protein-rich preloads significantly reduced intake at the test meal and resulted in more accurate energy compensation than did carbohydrate-rich preloads. This energy compensation was stronger in the MSG+ protein conditions when compared with MSG+ carbohydrate conditions. No clear differences in rated appetite were seen in MSG or the macronutrient conditions alone during preload ingestion or 45 min after intake. Overall, these findings indicate that MSG may act to further improve energy compensation when provided in a protein-rich context.
    08/2014; 3:e15. DOI:10.1017/jns.2014.15
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    ABSTRACT: Background The consumption of liquid calories has been implicated in the development of obesity and weight gain. Energy-containing drinks are often reported to have a weak satiety value: one explanation for this is that because of their fluid texture they are not expected to have much nutritional value. It is important to consider what features of these drinks can be manipulated to enhance their expected satiety value. Two studies investigated the perception of subtle changes in a drink’s viscosity, and the extent to which thick texture and creamy flavour contribute to the generation of satiety expectations. Participants in the first study rated the sensory characteristics of 16 fruit yogurt drinks of increasing viscosity. In study two, a new set of participants evaluated eight versions of the fruit yogurt drink, which varied in thick texture, creamy flavour and energy content, for sensory and hedonic characteristics and satiety expectations. Results In study one, participants were able to perceive small changes in drink viscosity that were strongly related to the actual viscosity of the drinks. In study two, the thick versions of the drink were expected to be more filling and have a greater expected satiety value, independent of the drink’s actual energy content. A creamy flavour enhanced the extent to which the drink was expected to be filling, but did not affect its expected satiety. Conclusions These results indicate that subtle manipulations of texture and creamy flavour can increase expectations that a fruit yogurt drink will be filling and suppress hunger, irrespective of the drink’s energy content. A thicker texture enhanced expectations of satiety to a greater extent than a creamier flavour, and may be one way to improve the anticipated satiating value of energy-containing beverages.
    01/2012; 1(1). DOI:10.1186/2044-7248-1-20
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