The evolving understanding of the construct of intellectual disability
ABSTRACT This article addresses two major areas concerned with the evolving understanding of the construct of intellectual disability. The first part of the article discusses current answers to five critical questions that have revolved around the general question, "What is Intellectual Disability?" These five are what to call the phenomenon, how to explain the phenomenon, how to define the phenomenon and determine who is a member of the class, how to classify persons so defined and identified, and how to establish public policy regarding such persons. The second part of the article discusses four critical issues that will impact both our future understanding of the construct and the approach taken to persons with intellectual disability. These four critical issues relate to the conceptualisation and measurement of intellectual functioning, the constitutive definition of intellectual disability, the alignment of clinical functions related to diagnosis, classification, and planning supports, and how the field resolves a number of emerging epistemological issues.
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- "Their placement meant that they had already been diagnosed with ID. ID is a multidimensional state of human functioning with significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour (Schalock 2011). The control group was composed of 13 individuals with similar chronological age (5 female, 8 male; mean age 025.07, "
ABSTRACT: This study focused on prospective memory in persons with intellectual disability and age-matched controls. Persons with intellectual disability have limited prospective memory function. We investigated prospective memory with words and pictures as cues at encoding and retrieval. Prospective and episodic memory was estimated from Prospective Memory Game performance. Pictures at retrieval were important for prospective memory in particular in the intellectual disability group. Prospective memory performance imposed a cost to Episodic Memory (ongoing task) performance in the intellectual disability group. This group was outperformed by the control group on working memory, time reproduction, time concepts, and Raven’s coloured progressive matrices. To conclude, pictures at retrieval improve prospective memory performance compared to words as cues. This can be essential for the intellectual disability group likely due to limited episodic and working memory capacity and the ability to switch attention.
- Current opinion in psychiatry 03/2013; 26. DOI:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32835fd6fb · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genetic testing for intellectual disability, global developmental delay and other neurodevelopmental disorders has advanced considerably in the last five to ten years and can be an important diagnostic tool for clinicians. This article provides a clinical and ethical framework for understanding these advances, future directions and the current limitations of these approaches. Ann Neurol 2013;74:164–170Annals of Neurology 06/2013; 74(2). DOI:10.1002/ana.23950 · 11.91 Impact Factor