The evolving understanding of the construct of intellectual disability

Hastings College, Nebraska, USA.
Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability (Impact Factor: 1.02). 12/2011; 36(4):223-33. DOI: 10.3109/13668250.2011.624087
Source: PubMed


This article addresses two major areas concerned with the evolving understanding of the construct of intellectual disability. The first part of the article discusses current answers to five critical questions that have revolved around the general question, "What is Intellectual Disability?" These five are what to call the phenomenon, how to explain the phenomenon, how to define the phenomenon and determine who is a member of the class, how to classify persons so defined and identified, and how to establish public policy regarding such persons. The second part of the article discusses four critical issues that will impact both our future understanding of the construct and the approach taken to persons with intellectual disability. These four critical issues relate to the conceptualisation and measurement of intellectual functioning, the constitutive definition of intellectual disability, the alignment of clinical functions related to diagnosis, classification, and planning supports, and how the field resolves a number of emerging epistemological issues.

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    • "Nevertheless, the school administrators confirmed that participants in this study are those categorised to have mild to moderate intellectual disability based on selected test components from VABS-2. The schools' decision not to use IQ test appears to be consistent with how the construct of intellectual disability had been evolving, such that an ecological focus has been adopted with decreasing emphasis on IQ cut-points as a categorical basis of classifying severity of disability (Schalock, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine aspects of validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in Filipino children with intellectual disability. Content and construct validity were verified, as well as inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Two paediatric physiotherapists tested 81 children with intellectual disability (mean age = 9.29 ± 2.71 years) on locomotor and object control skills. Analysis of covariance, confirmatory factor analysis and analysis of variance were used to test validity, while Cronbach's alpha, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine reliability. Age was a significant predictor of locomotor and object control scores (P = 0.004). The data fit the hypothesised two-factor model with fit indices as follows: χ(2) = 33.525, DF = 34, P = 0.491, χ(2)/DF = 0.986. As hypothesised, gender was a significant predictor for object control skills (P = 0.038). Participants' mean scores were significantly below mastery (locomotor, P < 0.001; object control, P < 0.001). Cronbach's alpha was 0.830 for locomotor and 0.792 for object control components. ICC for locomotor and object control scores ranged from 0.995 to 0.998, suggesting excellent intra-rater and inter-rater reliability, confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. This study provides evidence of sufficient content and construct validity, internal consistency and rater reliability of TGMD-2 for Filipino children with intellectual disability.
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    • "Their placement meant that they had already been diagnosed with ID. ID is a multidimensional state of human functioning with significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour (Schalock 2011). The control group was composed of 13 individuals with similar chronological age (5 female, 8 male; mean age 025.07, "
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    ABSTRACT: This study focused on prospective memory in persons with intellectual disability and age-matched controls. Persons with intellectual disability have limited prospective memory function. We investigated prospective memory with words and pictures as cues at encoding and retrieval. Prospective and episodic memory was estimated from Prospective Memory Game performance. Pictures at retrieval were important for prospective memory in particular in the intellectual disability group. Prospective memory performance imposed a cost to Episodic Memory (ongoing task) performance in the intellectual disability group. This group was outperformed by the control group on working memory, time reproduction, time concepts, and Raven’s coloured progressive matrices. To conclude, pictures at retrieval improve prospective memory performance compared to words as cues. This can be essential for the intellectual disability group likely due to limited episodic and working memory capacity and the ability to switch attention.

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