Additional value of serum I-FABP levels for evaluating celiac disease activity in children.
ABSTRACT Addition of a non-invasive marker for intestinal damage to the currently used parameters for celiac disease activity (symptoms, serologic tests and biopsy) might further improve clinical management of celiac disease (CD). Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a cytosolic enterocyte protein and sensitive marker for enterocyte damage in the small intestine. We investigated whether serum I-FABP levels can reliably identify villous atrophy in children with a positive CD antibody screening. Moreover, the recovery of I-FABP levels after gluten free diet (GFD) was studied.
I-FABP levels were analyzed retrospectively in 49 children with biopsy proven CD and in 19 patients with a positive screening but without histological confirmation of CD. Blood was collected before biopsy and repeatedly after the onset of GFD.
Initial I-FABP concentrations in CD (median 458 pg/ml) were significantly (p < 0.001) elevated compared to controls (median 20 pg/ml). In the control group, only two of 19 children were found to have elevated I-FABP levels, of which one was subsequently diagnosed with CD after gluten challenge. I-FABP concentrations correlated with severity of villous atrophy. In all CD patients, I-FABP levels decreased quickly after GFD and normalized in 80% of patients within 12 weeks.
Elevated I-FABP levels accurately predict villous atrophy in children with a positive serologic test for CD (positive predictive value 98%). In addition, measurement of I-FABP enables monitoring the response to GFD.
Article: Advances in coeliac disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To summarize the recent advances in coeliac disease. Details of the polygenic nature of coeliac disease with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus as the dominating genetic element have been uncovered. The existence of a large number of non-HLA coeliac disease genes, only partly shared by each individual patient, suggests the genetic heterogeneity of the disease. The critical role for HLA-DQ-restricted CD4 T cells recognizing antigenic gluten peptides is further substantiated. Involvement of CD8 T cells has received new attention. Other components of wheat than gluten, in particular the amylase trypsin inhibitors, may also play a role. The disease is becoming more prevalent. New guidelines state that coeliac disease diagnosis in children can be made on the basis of clinical signs, serology and genetics without the need of biopsy. The clinical entity 'noncoeliac gluten sensitivity' has received much attention, but diagnostic and pathophysiological definitions are still elusive. The risk for mortality and morbidity in coeliac disease is less than previously thought. Our understanding of the basic and clinical aspects of coeliac disease increases. Coeliac disease stands out as a major health problem of almost global occurrence. Case finding, distinguishing coeliac disease from other gluten-sensitive conditions, better care and balanced use of resources are the current challenges.Current opinion in gastroenterology 01/2014; · 4.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stunting affects one-third of children in developing countries, but the causes remain unclear. We hypothesized that enteropathy leads to low-grade inflammation, which suppresses the growth hormone-IGF axis and mediates stunting. We conducted a case-control study of 202 HIV-unexposed Zimbabwean infants who were stunted (height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) <-2; cases) or non-stunted (HAZ >-0.5; controls) at 18 months. We measured biomarkers of intestinal damage (I-FABP), inflammation (CRP, AGP, IL-6) and growth hormone-IGF axis (IGF-1, IGFBP3) in infant plasma at 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months, and in paired maternal-infant plasma at birth. Adjusted mean differences between biomarkers were estimated using regression models. Multivariate odds ratios of stunting were estimated by logistic regression. At birth, cases were shorter (median (IQR) HAZ -1.00 (-1.53, -0.08) vs 0.03 (-0.57, 0.62,); P<0.001) than controls and their mothers had lower levels of IGF-1 (adjusted mean difference (95%CI) -21.4 (-39.8, -3.1) ng/mL). From 6 weeks to 12 months of age, levels of CRP and AGP were consistently higher and IGF-1 and IGFBP3 lower in cases versus controls; IGF-1 correlated inversely with inflammatory markers at all time-points. I-FABP increased between 3-12 months, indicating extensive intestinal damage during infancy, which was similar in cases and controls. In multivariate analysis, higher log10 levels of CRP (aOR 3.06 (95%CI 1.34, 6.99); P = 0.008) and AGP (aOR 7.87 (95%CI 0.74, 83.74); P = 0.087) during infancy were associated with stunting. There were no associations between levels of I-FABP, IL-6, sCD14 or EndoCAb and stunting. Stunting began in utero and was associated with low maternal IGF-1 levels at birth. Inflammatory markers were higher in cases than controls from 6 weeks of age and were associated with lower levels of IGF-1 throughout infancy. Higher levels of CRP and AGP during infancy were associated with stunting. These findings suggest that an extensive enteropathy occurs during infancy and that low-grade chronic inflammation may impair infant growth.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e86928. · 3.73 Impact Factor