Electrocardiographic characteristics and SCN5A mutations in idiopathic ventricular fibrillation associated with early repolarization.
ABSTRACT Recently, we and others reported that early repolarization (J wave) is associated with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. However, its clinical and genetic characteristics are unclear.
This study included 50 patients (44 men; age, 45 ± 17 years) with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation associated with early repolarization, and 250 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All of the patients had experienced arrhythmia events, and 8 (16%) had a family history of sudden death. Ventricular fibrillation was inducible by programmed electric stimulation in 15 of 29 patients (52%). The heart rate was slower and the PR interval and QRS duration were longer in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation than in controls. We identified nonsynonymous variants in SCN5A (resulting in A226D, L846R, and R367H) in 3 unrelated patients. These variants occur at residues that are highly conserved across mammals. His-ventricular interval was prolonged in all of the patients carrying an SCN5A mutation. Sodium channel blocker challenge resulted in an augmentation of early repolarization or development of ventricular fibrillation in all of 3 patients, but none was diagnosed with Brugada syndrome. In heterologous expression studies, all of the mutant channels failed to generate any currents. Immunostaining revealed a trafficking defect in A226D channels and normal trafficking in R367H and L846R channels.
We found reductions in heart rate and cardiac conduction and loss-of-function mutations in SCN5A in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation associated with early repolarization. These findings support the hypothesis that decreased sodium current enhances ventricular fibrillation susceptibility.
- Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology 07/2012; 17(3):170-5. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An early repolarization (ER) pattern in the ECG, distinguished by J-point elevation, slurring of the terminal part of the QRS and ST-segment elevation has long been recognized and considered to be a benign electrocardiographic manifestation. Experimental studies conducted over a decade ago suggested that some cases of ER may be associated with malignant arrhythmias. Validation of this hypothesis was provided by recent studies demonstrating that an ER pattern in the inferior or inferolateral leads is associated with increased risk for life-threatening arrhythmias, termed ER syndrome (ERS). Because accentuated J waves characterize both Brugada syndrome (BS) and ERS, these syndromes have been grouped under the term "J wave syndromes". ERS and BS share similar ECG characteristics, clinical outcomes and risk factors, as well as a common arrhythmic platform related to amplification of I(to)-mediated J waves. Although BS and ERS differ with respect to the magnitude and lead location of abnormal J wave manifestation, they can be considered to represent a continuous spectrum of phenotypic expression. Although most subjects exhibiting an ER pattern are at minimal to no risk, mounting evidence suggests that careful attention should be paid to subjects with "high risk" ER. The challenge ahead is to be able to identify those at risk for sudden cardiac death. Here I review the clinical and genetic aspects as well as the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the J wave syndromes.Circulation Journal 04/2012; 76(5):1054-65. · 3.58 Impact Factor