Electrocardiographic characteristics and SCN5A mutations in idiopathic ventricular fibrillation associated with early repolarization.
ABSTRACT Recently, we and others reported that early repolarization (J wave) is associated with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. However, its clinical and genetic characteristics are unclear.
This study included 50 patients (44 men; age, 45 ± 17 years) with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation associated with early repolarization, and 250 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All of the patients had experienced arrhythmia events, and 8 (16%) had a family history of sudden death. Ventricular fibrillation was inducible by programmed electric stimulation in 15 of 29 patients (52%). The heart rate was slower and the PR interval and QRS duration were longer in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation than in controls. We identified nonsynonymous variants in SCN5A (resulting in A226D, L846R, and R367H) in 3 unrelated patients. These variants occur at residues that are highly conserved across mammals. His-ventricular interval was prolonged in all of the patients carrying an SCN5A mutation. Sodium channel blocker challenge resulted in an augmentation of early repolarization or development of ventricular fibrillation in all of 3 patients, but none was diagnosed with Brugada syndrome. In heterologous expression studies, all of the mutant channels failed to generate any currents. Immunostaining revealed a trafficking defect in A226D channels and normal trafficking in R367H and L846R channels.
We found reductions in heart rate and cardiac conduction and loss-of-function mutations in SCN5A in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation associated with early repolarization. These findings support the hypothesis that decreased sodium current enhances ventricular fibrillation susceptibility.
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ABSTRACT: Inherited primary arrhythmias, namely congenital long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, account for a significant proportion of sudden cardiac deaths in young and apparently healthy individuals. Genetic testing plays an integral role in the diagnosis, risk-stratification and treatment of probands and family members. It is increasingly obvious that collaborative efforts are required to understand and manage these relatively rare but potentially lethal diseases. This article aims to update readers on the recent developments in our knowledge of inherited arrhythmias and to lay the foundation for a national synergistic effort to characterize them in the Indian population.Indian heart journal 01/2013; 66S1:S49-S57.
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ABSTRACT: Voltage sensor domains (VSDs) are a feature of voltage gated ion channels (VGICs) and voltage sensitive proteins. They are composed of four transmembrane (TM) segments (S1-S4). Currents leaking through VSDs are called omega or gating pore currents. Gating pores are caused by mutations of the highly conserved positively charged amino acids in the S4 segment that disrupt interactions between the S4 segment and the gating charge transfer center (GCTC). The GCTC separates the intracellular and extracellular water crevices. The disruption of S4-GCTC interactions allows these crevices to communicate and create a fast activating and non-inactivating alternative cation-selective permeation pathway of low conductance, or a gating pore. Gating pore currents have recently been shown to cause periodic paralysis phenotypes. There is also increasing evidence that gating pores are linked to several other familial diseases. For example, gating pores in Nav1.5 and Kv7.2 channels may underlie mixed arrhythmias associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) phenotypes and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH), respectively. There is little evidence for the existence of gating pore blockers. Moreover, it is known that a number of toxins bind to the VSD of a specific domain of Na(+) channels. These toxins may thus modulate gating pore currents. This focus on the VSD motif opens up a new area of research centered on developing molecules to treat a number of cell excitability disorders such as epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmias, and pain. The purpose of the present review is to summarize existing knowledge of the pathophysiology, biophysics, and pharmacology of gating pore currents and to serve as a guide for future studies aimed at improving our understanding of gating pores and their pathophysiological roles.Frontiers in Pharmacology 04/2014; 5:53.
- Archivos de cardiología de México 03/2014;