When a minor head injury results in enduring symptoms: a prospective investigation of risk factors for postconcussional syndrome after mild traumatic brain injury.
ABSTRACT A significant proportion (15-30%) of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) are at risk of developing postconcussional syndrome (PCS). The aim of this study was to investigate the contributions of cognitive, emotional, behavioural and social factors to the development of PCS and identify early predictors.
A prospective cohort design was employed. 126 MTBI patients completed baseline questionnaire assessments within 2 weeks of the injury and 107 completed follow-up questionnaire assessments at 3 and 6 months. A series of self-report measures were used to assess cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses to MTBI. The primary outcome was the ICD-10 diagnosis for PCS. Demographic and clinical characteristic variables were compared between PCS cases and non-cases using independent sample t tests and χ(2) tests. Individual and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to detect predictors of PCS.
Of 107 MTBI patients, 24 (22%) met the criteria for PCS at 3 months and 22 (21%) at 6 months. Individual logistic regression analysis indicated that negative MTBI perceptions, stress, anxiety, depression and all-or-nothing behaviour were associated with the risk of PCS. Multivariate analysis revealed that all-or-nothing behaviour was the key predictor for the onset of PCS at 3 months while negative MTBI perceptions predicted PCS at 6 months.
The study provides good support for the proposed cognitive behavioural model. Patients' perceptions of their head injury and their behavioural responses play important roles in the development of PCS, indicating that cognitive and behavioural factors may be potential targets for early preventive interventions.
- SourceAvailable from: Arnaud Messé[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Post-concussion syndrome has been related to axonal damage in patients with mild traumatic brain injury, but little is known about the consequences of injury on brain networks. In the present study, our aim was to characterize changes in functional brain networks following mild traumatic brain injury in patients with post-concussion syndrome using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. We investigated 17 injured patients with persistent post-concussion syndrome (under the DSM-IV criteria) at 6 months post-injury compared with 38 mild traumatic brain injury patients with no post-concussion syndrome and 34 healthy controls. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging examinations at the subacute (1-3 weeks) and late (6 months) phases after injury. Group-wise differences in functional brain networks were analyzed using graph theory measures. Patterns of long-range functional networks alterations were found in all mild traumatic brain injury patients. Mild traumatic brain injury patients with post-concussion syndrome had greater alterations than patients without post-concussion syndrome. In patients with post-concussion syndrome, changes specifically affected temporal and thalamic regions predominantly at the subacute stage and frontal regions at the late phase. Our results suggest that the post-concussion syndrome is associated with specific abnormalities in functional brain network that may contribute to explain deficits typically observed in PCS patients.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e65470. · 3.73 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although most individuals who suffer a mild traumatic brain injury have complete recovery, a number experience persistent symptoms that appear inconsistent with the severity of the injury. Symptoms may be ascribed to malingering, exaggeration or poor effort on cognitive testing. The purpose of this paper is to propose that previously unconsidered factors, informed by social psychology and behavioural economics, can appear as 'symptom magnification' or 'poor effort', which are incorrectly interpreted as the result of a conscious process. These are complex and multi-determined behaviours with a unique differential diagnosis which have important implications for research, evaluation and treatment.Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 06/2012; 83(8):836-41. · 4.87 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: To characterize the long-term consequences of mild traumatic brain injury regarding post-concussion symptoms, post-traumatic stress, and quality of life; and to investigate differences between men and women. Design: Retrospective mixed-methods study. Subjects/patients and methods: Of 214 patients with mild traumatic brain injury seeking acute care, 163 answered questionnaires concerning post-concussion symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire; RPQ), post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale; IES), and quality of life (Short Form Health Survey; SF-36) 3 years post-injury. A total of 21 patients underwent a medical examination in connection with the survey. The patients were contacted 11 years later, and 10 were interviewed. Interview data were analysed with content analysis. Results: The mean total RPQ score was 12.7 (standard deviation; SD 12.9); 10.5 (SD 11.9) for men and 15.9 (SD 13.8) for women (p = 0.006). The 5 most common symptoms were fatigue (53.4%), poor memory (52.5%), headache (50.9%), frustration (47.9%) and depression (47.2%). The mean total IES score was 9.6 (SD 12.9) 7.1 (SD 10.3) for men and 13.0 (SD 15.2) for women (p = 0.004). In general, the studied population had low scores on the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The interviews revealed that some patients still had disabling post-concussion symptoms and consequences in many areas of life 11 years after the injury event. Conclusion: Long-term consequences were present for approximately 50% of the patients 3 years after mild traumatic brain injury and were also reported 11 years after mild traumatic brain injury. This needs to be taken into account by healthcare professionals and society in general when dealing with people who have undergone mild traumatic brain injury.Journal of rehabilitation medicine: official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 09/2013; 45(8):758-64. · 1.88 Impact Factor