When a minor head injury results in enduring symptoms: a prospective investigation of risk factors for postconcussional syndrome after mild traumatic brain injury
ABSTRACT A significant proportion (15-30%) of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) are at risk of developing postconcussional syndrome (PCS). The aim of this study was to investigate the contributions of cognitive, emotional, behavioural and social factors to the development of PCS and identify early predictors.
A prospective cohort design was employed. 126 MTBI patients completed baseline questionnaire assessments within 2 weeks of the injury and 107 completed follow-up questionnaire assessments at 3 and 6 months. A series of self-report measures were used to assess cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses to MTBI. The primary outcome was the ICD-10 diagnosis for PCS. Demographic and clinical characteristic variables were compared between PCS cases and non-cases using independent sample t tests and χ(2) tests. Individual and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to detect predictors of PCS.
Of 107 MTBI patients, 24 (22%) met the criteria for PCS at 3 months and 22 (21%) at 6 months. Individual logistic regression analysis indicated that negative MTBI perceptions, stress, anxiety, depression and all-or-nothing behaviour were associated with the risk of PCS. Multivariate analysis revealed that all-or-nothing behaviour was the key predictor for the onset of PCS at 3 months while negative MTBI perceptions predicted PCS at 6 months.
The study provides good support for the proposed cognitive behavioural model. Patients' perceptions of their head injury and their behavioural responses play important roles in the development of PCS, indicating that cognitive and behavioural factors may be potential targets for early preventive interventions.
Neurology: Clinical Practice (Print) 02/2014; 5(1):17-24. DOI:10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000092
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ABSTRACT: OBJECT Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a major public health problem. Approximately 90% of SRCs in high school athletes are transient; symptoms recover to baseline within 1 week. However, a small percentage of patients remain symptomatic several months after injury, with a condition known as postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The authors aimed to identify risk factors for PCS development in a cohort of exclusively young athletes (9-18 years of age) who sustained SRCs while playing a sport. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective case-control study by using the Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Clinic database. They identified 40 patients with PCS and matched them by age at injury and sex to SRC control patients (1 PCS to 2 control). PCS patients were those experiencing persistent symptoms at 3 months after an SRC. Control patients were those with documented resolution of symptoms within 3 weeks of an SRC. Data were collected in 4 categories: 1) demographic variables; 2) key medical, psychiatric, and family history; 3) acute-phase postinjury symptoms (at 0-24 hours); and 4) subacute-phase postinjury features (at 0-3 weeks). The chi-square Fisher exact test was used to assess categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate continuous variables. Forward stepwise regression models (Pin = 0.05, Pout = 0.10) were used to identify variables associated with PCS. RESULTS PCS patients were more likely than control patients to have a concussion history (p = 0.010), premorbid mood disorders (p = 0.002), other psychiatric illness (p = 0.039), or significant life stressors (p = 0.036). Other factors that increased the likelihood of PCS development were a family history of mood disorders, other psychiatric illness, and migraine. Development of PCS was not predicted by race, insurance status, body mass index, sport, helmet use, medication use, and type of symptom endorsement. A final logistic regression analysis of candidate variables showed PCS to be predicted by a history of concussion (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.8, p = 0.016), preinjury mood disorders (OR 17.9, 95% CI 2.9-113.0, p = 0.002), family history of mood disorders (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.5, p = 0.026), and delayed symptom onset (OR 20.7, 95% CI 3.2-132.0, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In this age- and sex-matched case-control study of risk factors for PCS among youth with SRC, risk for development of PCS was higher in those with a personal and/or family history of mood disorders, other psychiatric illness, and migraine. These findings highlight the unique nature of SRC in youth. For this population, providers must recognize the value of establishing the baseline health and psychiatric status of children and their primary caregivers with regard to symptom reporting and recovery expectations. In addition, delayed symptom onset was an unexpected but strong risk factor for PCS in this cohort. Delayed symptoms could potentially result in late removal from play, rest, and care by qualified health care professionals. Taken together, these results may help practitioners identify young athletes with concussion who are at a greater danger for PCS and inform larger prospective studies for validation of risk factors from this cohort.Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 03/2015; DOI:10.3171/2014.10.PEDS14356 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Resilient individuals manifest adaptive behavior and are better able to recover from adversity. The association between resilience and outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is examined, and the reliability and validity of the Resilience Scale and its short form in MTBI research is evaluated. Patients with MTBI (n=74) and orthopedic controls (n=39) completed the Resilience Scale at 1, 6, and 12 months after injury. Additionally, self-reported post-concussion symptoms, fatigue, insomnia, pain, posttraumatic stress, and depression, as well as quality of life, were evaluated. The internal consistency of the Resilience Scale and the short form ranged from .91 to .93 for the MTBI group and from 0.86 to .95 for the controls. The test-retest reliability ranged from .70 to .82. Patients with MTBI and moderate to high resilience reported significantly fewer post-concussion symptoms, less fatigue, insomnia, traumatic stress, and depressive symptoms, and better quality of life, than the patients with low resilience. No association between resilience and time to return to work was found. Resilience was associated with self-reported outcome from MTBI and based on this preliminary study can be reliably evaluated with Resilience Scale and its short form in those with MTBIs.Journal of Neurotrauma 03/2015; DOI:10.1089/neu.2014.3799 · 3.97 Impact Factor