When a minor head injury results in enduring symptoms: a prospective investigation of risk factors for postconcussional syndrome after mild traumatic brain injury.
ABSTRACT A significant proportion (15-30%) of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) are at risk of developing postconcussional syndrome (PCS). The aim of this study was to investigate the contributions of cognitive, emotional, behavioural and social factors to the development of PCS and identify early predictors.
A prospective cohort design was employed. 126 MTBI patients completed baseline questionnaire assessments within 2 weeks of the injury and 107 completed follow-up questionnaire assessments at 3 and 6 months. A series of self-report measures were used to assess cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses to MTBI. The primary outcome was the ICD-10 diagnosis for PCS. Demographic and clinical characteristic variables were compared between PCS cases and non-cases using independent sample t tests and χ(2) tests. Individual and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to detect predictors of PCS.
Of 107 MTBI patients, 24 (22%) met the criteria for PCS at 3 months and 22 (21%) at 6 months. Individual logistic regression analysis indicated that negative MTBI perceptions, stress, anxiety, depression and all-or-nothing behaviour were associated with the risk of PCS. Multivariate analysis revealed that all-or-nothing behaviour was the key predictor for the onset of PCS at 3 months while negative MTBI perceptions predicted PCS at 6 months.
The study provides good support for the proposed cognitive behavioural model. Patients' perceptions of their head injury and their behavioural responses play important roles in the development of PCS, indicating that cognitive and behavioural factors may be potential targets for early preventive interventions.
- Psychological Injury and Law 09/2014; 7(3):245-254.
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ABSTRACT: The neural underpinnings of cognitive dysfunction in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) are not fully understood. Consequently, patient prognosis using existing clinical imaging is somewhat imprecise. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a frequently employed investigation in this population, notwithstanding uncertainty over the clinical utility of the data obtained. In this study, subjects with mild TBI underwent 99mTc-ECD SPECT scanning, and were administered a brief battery of cognitive tests and self-report symptom scales of concussion and emotional distress. Testing took place 2 weeks (n=84) and 1 year (n=49) post-injury. Multivariate analysis (i.e., partial least squares analysis) revealed that frontal perfusion in right superior frontal and middle frontal gyri predicted poorer performance on the Stroop test, an index of executive function, both at initial and follow-up testing. Conversely, SPECT scans categorized as normal or abnormal by radiologists did not differentiate cognitively impaired from intact subjects. These results demonstrate the clinical utility of SPECT in mild TBI, but only when data are subjected to blood flow quantification analysis.Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 11/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for more than 75% of traumatic brain injuries every year. This study examines the temporal association between non-blast mTBI and the onset of neurologic sequelae to illuminate risks of post-concussive syndrome, epilepsy and chronic pain. Methods: A large historical prospective study was conducted utilizing electronically-recorded demographic, medical and military-specific data for over half a million active duty US Air Force Airmen. This study utilized diagnostic codes to identify mTBI exposures, two control groups and three post-mTBI time periods. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modelling. Results: HRs were higher when mTBI exposed Airmen were compared with the full cohort and lower when compared with the other injured group. When compared to the other injured group, mTBI was positively associated with epilepsy/recurrent seizure outcomes, post-concussive syndrome and pain disorders. HRs tended to be highest within the first 30 days and decreased over time. Conclusions: Findings support that mTBI may have a prolonged neurological impact. Findings are also likely generalizable to young adult populations with exposure to non-blast related mTBI, including civilians, as those included in this study were young adults with a high prevalence of recreational/sports and motor vehicle injuries.Brain Injury 12/2014; · 1.86 Impact Factor