Article

Cotranscriptional effect of a premature termination codon revealed by live-cell imaging.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.
RNA (Impact Factor: 4.62). 12/2011; 17(12):2094-107. DOI: 10.1261/rna.02918111
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aberrant mRNAs with premature translation termination codons (PTCs) are recognized and eliminated by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway in eukaryotes. We employed a novel live-cell imaging approach to investigate the kinetics of mRNA synthesis and release at the transcription site of PTC-containing (PTC+) and PTC-free (PTC-) immunoglobulin-μ reporter genes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and photoconversion analyses revealed that PTC+ transcripts are specifically retained at the transcription site. Remarkably, the retained PTC+ transcripts are mainly unspliced, and this RNA retention is dependent upon two important NMD factors, UPF1 and SMG6, since their depletion led to the release of the PTC+ transcripts. Finally, ChIP analysis showed a physical association of UPF1 and SMG6 with both the PTC+ and the PTC- reporter genes in vivo. Collectively, our data support a mechanism for regulation of PTC+ transcripts at the transcription site.

0 Followers
 · 
150 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pre-mRNA splicing of Pol II transcripts is executed in the mammalian cell nucleus within a huge (21 MDa) and highly dynamic RNP machine – the supraspliceosome. It is composed of four splicing active native spliceosomes, each resembling an in vitro assembled spliceosome, which are connected by the pre-mRNA. Supraspliceosomes harbor protein splicing factors and all the five-spliceosomal U snRNPs. Recent analysis of specific supraspliceosomes at defined splicing stages revealed that they harbor all five spliceosomal U snRNAs at all splicing stages. Supraspliceosomes harbor additional pre-mRNA processing components, such as the 5’-end and 3'-end processing components, and the RNA editing enzymes ADAR1 and ADAR2. The structure of the native spliceosome, at a resolution of 20 Å, was determined by cryo-EM. A unique spatial arrangement of the spliceosomal U snRNPs within the native spliceosome emerged from in-silico studies, localizing the five U snRNPs mostly within its large subunit, and sheltering the active core components deep within the spliceosomal cavity. The supraspliceosome provides a platform for coordinating the numerous processing steps that the pre-mRNA undergoes: 5’ and 3’-end processing activities, RNA editing, constitutive and alternative splicing, and processing of intronic microRNAs. It also harbor a quality control mechanism termed Suppression of Splicing (SOS) that, under normal growth conditions, suppresses splicing at abundant intronic latent 5’ splice sites in a reading frame-dependent fashion. Notably, changes in these regulatory processing activities are associated with human disease and cancer. These findings emphasize the supraspliceosome as a multi-task master regulator of pre-mRNA processing in the cell nucleus.
    09/2014; 11(19). DOI:10.1016/j.csbj.2014.09.008
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nucleolus is the most prominent morphological feature within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and is best known for its role in ribosome biogenesis. It forms around highly transcribed ribosomal RNA gene repeats which yield precursor rRNAs that are co-transcriptionally processed, folded and, while still within the nucleolus, associate with most of the ribosomal proteins. The nucleolus is therefore often thought of as a factory for making ribosomal subunits, which are exported as inactive precursors to the cytoplasm where late maturation makes them capable of mRNA binding and translation initiation. However, recent studies have shown substantial evidence for the presence of functional, translation competent ribosomal subunits within the nucleus, particularly in the nucleolus. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that the nucleolus, as well as being a ribosome factory, is also an important nuclear protein-synthesis plant.
    Biochemical Society Transactions 08/2014; 42(4):1224-8. DOI:10.1042/BST20140062 · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sequences that conform to the 5′ splice site (5′SS) consensus are highly abundant in mammalian introns. Most of these sequences are preceded by at least one in-frame stop codon; thus, their use for splicing would result in pre-maturely terminated aberrant mRNAs. In normally grown cells, such intronic 5′SSs appear not to be selected for splicing. However, under heat shock conditions aberrant splicing involving such latent 5′SSs occurred in a number of specific gene transcripts. Using a splicing-sensitive microarray, we show here that stress-induced (e.g. heat shock) activation of latent splicing is widespread across the human transcriptome, thus highlighting the possibility that latent splicing may underlie certain diseases. Consistent with this notion, our analyses of data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) revealed widespread activation of latent splicing in cells grown under hypoxia and in certain cancers such as breast cancer and gliomas. These changes were found in thousands of transcripts representing a wide variety of functional groups; among them are genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. The GEO analysis also revealed a set of gene transcripts in oligodendroglioma, in which the level of activation of latent splicing increased with the severity of the disease.
    Nucleic Acids Research 11/2012; 40(21):10980-10994. DOI:10.1093/nar/gks834 · 8.81 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Download
45 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014