Article

Pathogenic Protein Seeding in Alzheimer Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Disorders

Department of Cellular Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
Annals of Neurology (Impact Factor: 11.91). 10/2011; 70(4):532-40. DOI: 10.1002/ana.22615
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The misfolding and aggregation of specific proteins is a seminal occurrence in a remarkable variety of neurodegenerative disorders. In Alzheimer disease (the most prevalent cerebral proteopathy), the two principal aggregating proteins are β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau. The abnormal assemblies formed by conformational variants of these proteins range in size from small oligomers to the characteristic lesions that are visible by optical microscopy, such as senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Pathologic similarities with prion disease suggest that the formation and spread of these proteinaceous lesions might involve a common molecular mechanism-corruptive protein templating. Experimentally, cerebral β-amyloidosis can be exogenously induced by exposure to dilute brain extracts containing aggregated Aβ seeds. The amyloid-inducing agent probably is Aβ itself, in a conformation generated most effectively in the living brain. Once initiated, Aβ lesions proliferate within and among brain regions. The induction process is governed by the structural and biochemical nature of the Aβ seed, as well as the attributes of the host, reminiscent of pathogenically variant prion strains. The concept of prionlike induction and spreading of pathogenic proteins recently has been expanded to include aggregates of tau, α-synuclein, huntingtin, superoxide dismutase-1, and TDP-43, which characterize such human neurodegenerative disorders as frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Parkinson/Lewy body disease, Huntington disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Our recent finding that the most effective Aβ seeds are small and soluble intensifies the search in bodily fluids for misfolded protein seeds that are upstream in the proteopathic cascade, and thus could serve as predictive diagnostics and the targets of early, mechanism-based interventions. Establishing the clinical implications of corruptive protein templating will require further mechanistic and epidemiologic investigations. However, the theory that many chronic neurodegenerative diseases can originate and progress via the seeded corruption of misfolded proteins has the potential to unify experimental and translational approaches to these increasingly prevalent disorders.

1 Follower
 · 
159 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia worldwide and is an emerging global epidemic. It is characterized by an imbalance between production and clearance of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau proteins. Oligomeric forms of Aβ and tau are believed to be the most toxic. Dramatic results from AD animal models showed great promise for active and passive immune therapies targeting Aβ. However, there is very limited evidence in human studies of the clinical benefits from these approaches. Immunotherapies targeting only tau pathology have had some success but are limited so far to mouse models. The majority of current methods is based on immunological targeting of a self-protein; hence, benefits need to be balanced against risks of stimulating excessive autoimmune toxic inflammation. For greater efficacy the next generation of vaccines needs to focus more on concurrently targeting all the intermediate toxic conformers of oligomeric Aβ and tau species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neuron 03/2015; 85(6):1162-1176. DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.12.064 · 15.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Loss of protein quality control by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) during aging is one of the processes putatively contributing to cellular stress and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Recently, pooled Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), pathway analysis and proteomics identified protein ubiquitination as one of the key modulators of AD. Mutations in ubiquitin B mRNA that result in UBB(+1) dose-dependently cause an impaired UPS, subsequent accumulation of UBB(+1) and most probably depositions of other aberrant proteins present in plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. We used specific immunohistochemical probes for a comprehensive topographic mapping of the UBB(+1) distribution in the brains of transgenic mouse line 3413 overexpressing UBB(+1). We also mapped the expression of UBB(+1) in brain areas of AD patients selected based upon the distribution of UBB(+1) in line 3413. Therefore, we focused on the olfactory bulb, basal ganglia, nucleus basalis of Meynert, inferior colliculus and raphe nuclei. UBB(+1) distribution was compared with established probes for pre-tangles and tangles and Aβ plaques. UBB(+1) distribution found in line 3413 is partly mirrored in the AD brain. Specifically, nuclei with substantial accumulations of tangle-bearing neurons, such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert and raphe nuclei also present high densities of UBB(+1) positive tangles. Line 3413 is useful for studying the contribution of proteasomal dysfunction in AD. The findings are consistent with evidence that areas outside the forebrain are also affected in AD. Line 3413 may also be predictive for other conformational diseases, including related tauopathies and polyglutamine diseases, in which UBB(+1) accumulates in their cellular hallmarks.
    Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 03/2015; 9:26. DOI:10.3389/fnana.2015.00026 · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The APPswe plasmid was transfected into the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y to establish a cell model of Alzheimer's disease. Graded concentration and time course experiments demonstrate that curcumin significantly upregulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 and ferritin expression, and that it significantly downregulates heme oxygenase 2, reactive oxygen species and amyloid-beta 40/42 expression. These effects of curcumin on PI3K, Akt and Nrf2 were blocked by LY294002 (PI3k inhibitor) and NF-E2-related factor-2 siRNA. The results indicate that the cytoprotection conferred by curcumin on APPswe transfected SH-SY5Y cells is mediated by its ability to regulate the balance between heme oxygenase 1 and 2 via the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 intracellular signaling pathway.
    Neural Regeneration Research 02/2012; 7(6):405-12. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.06.001 · 0.23 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from