Enoxaparin Dose Adjustment is Associated With Low Incidence of Venous Thromboembolic Events in Acute Burn Patients
ABSTRACT Inadequate antifactor Xa levels have been documented in critically ill patients given prophylactic enoxaparin and may result in increased risk of venous thromboembolic (VTE) events. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of dose adjustment of enoxaparin and associated incidence of VTE in acute burn patients.
All acute burn patients who were treated with prophylactic enoxaparin on a burn/trauma intensive care unit were prospectively followed. Patients with subtherapeutic antifactor Xa levels had enoxaparin doses increased as per unit protocol with the goal of obtaining a therapeutic antifactor Xa level.
Eighty-four acute burn patients who were treated with enoxaparin had at least one appropriately obtained antifactor Xa level between June 2009 and October 2010. Initial antifactor Xa levels in 64 patients (76.2%) were below 0.2 U/mL, resulting in increased enoxaparin dose. Fifteen patients never achieved the target antifactor Xa level before enoxaparin was discontinued. Median final enoxaparin dose required to achieve therapeutic antifactor Xa levels was 40 mg every 12 hours (range, 20-70 mg). Using linear regression, final enoxaparin dose correlated with burn size (%total body surface area) and weight. No episodes of hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia, or heparin sensitivity were documented. Two patients (2.4%) had VTE complications despite adequate prophylaxis.
Frequent occurrence of low antifactor Xa levels observed in this study demonstrated the inadequacy of standard dosing of enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis in many patients with acute burns. Enoxaparin dose adjustment was associated with a low incidence of VTE events and no bleeding complications.
SourceAvailable from: Magda M W Ulrich[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cell therapy as part of the concept of regenerative medicine represents an upcoming platform technology. Although cultured epidermal cells have been used in burn treatment for decades, new developments have renewed the interest in this type of treatment. Whereas early results were hampered by long culture times in order to produce confluent sheets of keratinocytes, undifferentiated proliferating cells can nowadays be applied on burns with different application techniques. The application of cells on carriers has improved early as well as long-term results in experimental settings. The results of several commercially available epidermal substitutes for burn wound treatment are reviewed in this article. These data clearly demonstrate a lack of randomized comparative trials and application of measurable outcome parameters. Experimental research in culture systems and animal models has demonstrated new developments and proof of concepts of further improvements in epidermal coverage. These include combinations of epidermal cells and mesenchymal stem cells, and the guidance of both material and cell interactions towards regeneration of skin appendages as well as vascular and nerve structures.Regenerative Medicine 03/2014; 9(2):201-18. DOI:10.2217/rme.13.97 · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction Low-molecular-weight heparins are commonly used for the prophylaxis of thromboembolic disease. In contrast to therapeutic doses, recommended prophylactic doses are fixed (i.e., 40 mg/day enoxaparin). Dosing of patients with extreme body weights has not been well studied, especially dosing of low weight patients. Objectives To establish the anti-Xa activity that results from 40 mg/day enoxaparin in inpatients with body weight ≤ 55 kg. Patients/Methods Cross-sectional study including inpatients older than 18 years, with body weight ≤ 55 kg, and whose treating physician found indication for 40 mg/day enoxaparin. We excluded patients with renal failure and those using oral anticoagulants. Anti-Xa activity was measured 3 hours after the second dose of enoxaparin. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the effect of body weight on anti-Xa levels. Results Average age was 72.5 years (interquartile range, 30) and median body weight was 49.7 kg (interquartile range, 7). Twenty-five percent of patients weighed ≤ 45 kg, 37.5% weighed 46–50 kg, and 37.5% weighed 51–55 kg. The mean anti-Xa activity was 0.54 ± 0.18 IU/ml, and 60% of the patients exhibited activity ≥ 0.5 IU/ml. Weight and anti-Xa activity inversely correlated (Spearman’s rho = − 0.428, p = 0.001). Patients weighing ≤ 45 kg exhibited higher anti-Xa activity (0.61 ± 0.18 IU/ml, p = 0.008) than heavier patients and an odds ratio of 8 for anti-Xa level ≥ 0.5 IU/ml (95% CI: 1.42-45.06). Conclusions Anti-factor Xa activity rises significantly when body weight decreases. Patients of low weight, especially those weighing < 45 kg, exhibited an anti-Xa activity higher than the desired range for thromboembolic prophylaxis.Thrombosis Research 12/2013; 132(6):761–764. DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2013.10.005 · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review on the subject of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and hypercoagulability in burn patients. Specific changes in coagulability are reviewed using data from thromboelastography and other techniques. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in burn patients is discussed. The incidence and risk factors associated with VTE in burn patients are then examined, followed by the use of low-molecular-weight heparin thromboprophylaxis and monitoring techniques using antifactor Xa levels. The need for large, prospective trials in burn patients is highlighted, especially in the areas of VTE incidence and safe, effective thromboprophylaxis. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 01/2015; 41(01). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1398380 · 3.69 Impact Factor