Enoxaparin Dose Adjustment is Associated With Low Incidence of Venous Thromboembolic Events in Acute Burn Patients
ABSTRACT Inadequate antifactor Xa levels have been documented in critically ill patients given prophylactic enoxaparin and may result in increased risk of venous thromboembolic (VTE) events. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of dose adjustment of enoxaparin and associated incidence of VTE in acute burn patients.
All acute burn patients who were treated with prophylactic enoxaparin on a burn/trauma intensive care unit were prospectively followed. Patients with subtherapeutic antifactor Xa levels had enoxaparin doses increased as per unit protocol with the goal of obtaining a therapeutic antifactor Xa level.
Eighty-four acute burn patients who were treated with enoxaparin had at least one appropriately obtained antifactor Xa level between June 2009 and October 2010. Initial antifactor Xa levels in 64 patients (76.2%) were below 0.2 U/mL, resulting in increased enoxaparin dose. Fifteen patients never achieved the target antifactor Xa level before enoxaparin was discontinued. Median final enoxaparin dose required to achieve therapeutic antifactor Xa levels was 40 mg every 12 hours (range, 20-70 mg). Using linear regression, final enoxaparin dose correlated with burn size (%total body surface area) and weight. No episodes of hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia, or heparin sensitivity were documented. Two patients (2.4%) had VTE complications despite adequate prophylaxis.
Frequent occurrence of low antifactor Xa levels observed in this study demonstrated the inadequacy of standard dosing of enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis in many patients with acute burns. Enoxaparin dose adjustment was associated with a low incidence of VTE events and no bleeding complications.
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- "Two recent studies evaluated the impact of burn injury on enoxaparin dosing for thromboprophylaxis. The results suggest that patients with large burns and associated hypermetabolism may require doses above 30 mg every 12 hours of enoxaparin to achieve a targeted anti-factor Xa range for prophylaxis. However, specific dosing for either LDUH or LMWH is not defined in this population, and clinical correlation between anti-factor Xa levels and thrombosis risk has not been established. "
ABSTRACT: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication in critically ill patients and is associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. The use of thromboprophylaxis to reduce the risk of VTE in this patient population is the standard of care. This review will summarize the recommendations set forth in consensus guidelines for the prevention and treatment of VTE across subgroups within the critically ill patient population. In addition, the drug properties of the recommended pharmacologic agents for thromboprophylaxis will be highlighted including their pharmacokinetics, dosing and complications. The critical care practitioner may also encounter novel oral anticoagulants with increasing frequency. These agents will be briefly reviewed in terms of their approved and investigational indications and the clinical concerns related to their use will also be discussed.04/2013; 3(2):143-51. DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.114274
Article: The year in burns 2011[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: For 2011, approximately 1746 original research articles in burns were published in English in scientific journals. This article reviews those with the most potential impact on for burn therapeutics and outcomes according to the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and his colleague. As done previously, articles were found and divided into these topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterisation, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. Each selected article is mentioned briefly with editorial comment.Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 10/2012; 38(8). DOI:10.1016/j.burns.2012.10.002 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Uncontrolled bleeding is an important cause of increased transfusion in burn victims; however, description of blood utilization patterns in the burn population is lacking. Study Design and Methods We conducted a single-institution, retrospective cohort study to measure blood utilization in 89 consecutive burn patients with 15% to 65% total body surface area (TBSA) burn within 60 days of injury. We also evaluated the relationship of blood product utilization with clinical variables including anticoagulant usage and mortality. ResultsWe determined that: 1) the predictors for increased red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma transfusions were high TBSA burn and the use of argatroban anticoagulation (for suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia [HIT]); 2) TBSA burn and patient age were independent predictors of mortality, but not RBC or plasma transfusion; and 3) the incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolic events is not uncommon (11.2%), although HIT is rare (1.1%). Conclusion Despite concerns about adverse correlation between increased number of transfusions and mortality in other clinical settings, we did not find this association in our study. However, we demonstrated that the type and intensity of anticoagulation carries substantial risk for increased RBC as well as plasma usage.Transfusion 12/2012; 53(10). DOI:10.1111/trf.12057 · 3.57 Impact Factor