The present study investigated the protective effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid from the seed of Garcinia kola, on ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE)-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. The protective effect of kolaviron was validated using vitamin E, a standard antioxidant. EGEE was administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Other groups of rats were simultaneously treated with kolaviron (100 and 200 mg/kg) and vitamin E (50 mg/kg) for 14 days. EGEE treatment resulted in significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities but markedly increased the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in the testes. In the spermatozoa, administration of EGEE caused significant decrease in the activities of CAT, GPx, GST and LDH as well as in the level of GSH but significantly increased SOD activity with concomitant increase in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels in both testes and spermatozoa. EGEE-exposed rats showed marked testicular degeneration with concomitant decrease in spermatozoa quantity and quality. Overall, EGEE causes reproductive dysfunction in rats by altering antioxidant systems in the testes and spermatozoa. Kolaviron or vitamin E exhibited protective effects against EGEE-induced male reproductive toxicity by enhancement of antioxidant status and improvement in spermatozoa quantity and quality.
"Kolaviron (KV) is an extract from the seeds of Garcinia kola, containing a complex mixture of biflavonoids and polyphenols . A number of studies have confirmed the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of kolaviron in chemically-induced toxicity, animal models of diseases and in cell culture [17-20]. Although the glucose lowering effect of kolaviron has been reported in animal models of diabetes mellitus [21,22], no study has addressed the effect of KV on inflammatory biomarkers in diabetes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in hyperglycemia-induced liver injury. Kolaviron (KV), a natural biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds have been shown to possess anti- inflammatory properties which has not been explored in diabetes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of KV on pro-inflammatory proteins in the liver of diabetic rats.
Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats. Kolaviron (100 mg/kg) was administered orally five times a week for six weeks. The concentrations of cytokines and chemokines were measured using Bio-plex ProTM magnetic bead-based assays (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, USA). Plasma glucose and serum biomarkers of liver dysfunction were analyzed with diagnostic kits in an automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Insulin concentration was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA)Result: Kolaviron (100mg/kg) treatment significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia and liver dysfunction. Serum levels of hepatic marker enzymes were significantly reduced in kolaviron treated diabetic rats. Kolaviron prevented diabetes induced increase in the hepatic levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1).
The results of this study demonstrate that the hepatoprotective effects of kolaviron in diabetic rats may be partly associated with its modulating effect on inflammatory responses.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2013; 13(1):363. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-13-363 · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endocrine disrupting chemicals cause reproductive dysfunction by interacting with intricate regulation and cellular processes involve in spermatogenesis. This study investigated the probable mechanism of action of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) as an antiandrogenic compound as well as the effects of kolaviron upon co-administration with EGEE in rats. Adult male rats were exposed to EGEE (200 mg kg(-1) bw) separately or in combination with either kolaviron [100 (KV1) and 200 (KV2) mg kg(-1) bw] or vitamin E (50 mg kg(-1) bw) for 14 days. Western blot analysis revealed that the administration of EGEE adversely affected steroidogenesis in experimental rats by decreasing the expression of steroid acute regulatory (StAR) protein and androgen-binding protein (ABP). EGEE significantly decreased the activities of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) but markedly increased sialic acid concentration in rat testes. EGEE-treated rats showed significant decreases in plasma levels of luteinising hormone (31%), testosterone (57.1%), prolactin (80.9%), triiodothyronine (65.3%) and thyroxine (41.4%), whereas follicle-stimulating hormone was significantly elevated by 76.9% compared to the control. However, co-administration of kolaviron or vitamin E significantly reversed the EGEE-induced steroidogenic dysfunction in rats. This study suggests that kolaviron may prove promising as a chemoprotective agent against endocrine pathology resulting from EGEE exposure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance:
Garcinia kola seed is commonly used in African Traditional Medicine as a remedy for liver disorders, hepatitis, bronchitis, throat infections as well as an aphrodisiac and fertility enhancing substance. Owing to the abundance of complex mixture of phenolic compounds in Garcinia kola seed, there is a growing safety concern on its long-term use in folklore medicine. The present study evaluated the hepatic, testicular and spermatozoa antioxidant status in rats chronically treated with Garcinia kolaseed.
Materials and methods:
Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 rats each and were orally administered with Garcinia kola at 0, 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg for 6consecutive weeks. Clinical observations, serum biochemistry, oxidative stress biomarkers, spermatozoa parameters and histopathological examination of the organs were assessed to monitor treatment-related adverse effects inrats.
Long-term treatment of Garcinia kola had no adverse effect on the spermatozoa characteristics but significantly elevated testosterone concentration when compared to the control group. Improvement of antioxidant systems was accompanied by a significant decrease in malondialdehyde level in the liver, testes and spermatozoa of Garcinia kola-treated rats. Histological observation revealed that chronic administration of Garcinia kola had no effect on the liver and testes at all doses when compared with control.
Garcinia kola seed boosts the antioxidant status and exhibits no adverse effect on the liver, testes and spermatozoa after a long-term oral exposure inrats.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 01/2013; 146(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.01.018 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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