Chemoprotection of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats by kolaviron, isolated biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seed.
ABSTRACT The present study investigated the protective effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid from the seed of Garcinia kola, on ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE)-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. The protective effect of kolaviron was validated using vitamin E, a standard antioxidant. EGEE was administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Other groups of rats were simultaneously treated with kolaviron (100 and 200 mg/kg) and vitamin E (50 mg/kg) for 14 days. EGEE treatment resulted in significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities but markedly increased the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in the testes. In the spermatozoa, administration of EGEE caused significant decrease in the activities of CAT, GPx, GST and LDH as well as in the level of GSH but significantly increased SOD activity with concomitant increase in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels in both testes and spermatozoa. EGEE-exposed rats showed marked testicular degeneration with concomitant decrease in spermatozoa quantity and quality. Overall, EGEE causes reproductive dysfunction in rats by altering antioxidant systems in the testes and spermatozoa. Kolaviron or vitamin E exhibited protective effects against EGEE-induced male reproductive toxicity by enhancement of antioxidant status and improvement in spermatozoa quantity and quality.
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ABSTRACT: In the present work polyethylene glycol (PEG6000) was given orally by gavage to male mice at three different doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for consecutive 5 days per week up to six successive weeks. 24hr of treatment, half number of the mice from all experimental groups was sacrificed. Epididymis and testes were collected to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of PEG6000. The other half of treated male mice was mated with untreated virgin female mice to evaluate male-mediated genotoxicity of PEG6000 on fetuses. The results illustrated that PEG6000 decreased sperm motility and count in a dose-dependent manner. However, PEG6000 resulted in an increased fraction of sperm with abnormal morphology or abnormal chromatin integrity measured by toluidine blue and acridine orange. Besides, PEG6000 exhibited an increase in the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations in spermatocytes of treated male and in liver cells of their fetuses. Furthermore, testicular alternation and reduction of DNA nuclear content in spermatogonia and spermatocytes were observed in PEG6000 treated mice. In conclusion, chronic exposure of PEG6000 induced male reproductive impairment which correlated with genetic damage of fetuses generated from mating treated paternal mice with untreated female mice.World Applied Sciences Journal 01/2014; 31(8):1478-1487. · 0.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aims. Bitter kola seed (Garcinia kola, family: Guttiferae) has been used as a social masticatory agent in Africa for several years and is believed to possess many useful medicinal properties. The present study evaluates the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antilipidemic effects of kolaviron (an extract from the Garcinia kola seeds) in the blood of streptozotocin- (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods. Diabetic rats were treated with kolaviron (100 mg/kg b·wt) orally, five times a week for a period of six weeks. Serum glucose and HBA1C concentrations were estimated in experimental groups. The activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) (in erythrocytes) as well as plasma concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were investigated. Serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factor: interleukin- (IL-) 1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), respectively, were also analyzed. Results. Kolaviron treatment markedly improved antioxidant status and abated inflammatory response evidenced by reduction in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factor, lipid peroxidation product, and the restoration of activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in the blood of diabetic rats. Conclusion. Kolaviron improved antioxidant status, reduced inflammation, and protected against hyperglycemic-induced oxidative damage in the blood of diabetic rats.The Scientific World Journal 01/2014; 2014:921080. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Phenytoin (PHT), an anticonvulsant agent, widely used for the treatment of epilepsy has been reported to exhibit toxic side effects. The present study investigated the protective effects of kolaviron and vitamin E on hematotoxicity and neurotoxicity induced by phenytoin, in prepubertal male rats. The animals were treated with PHT (75 mg/kg) separately or in combination with either kolaviron (200 mg/kg) or vitamin E (500 mg/kg) for 14 days. Phenytoin treatment significantly decreased the hemoglobin, white blood cells, lymphocytes and mean corpuscular volume levels without affecting red blood cell, packed cell volume, neutrophils, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration when compared with the control rats. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide levels with marked depletion in antioxidant status in brains of PHT-treated rats when compared with the control. Although PHT treatment had no effect on the granular layer, widest diameter of Purkinje cells and Purkinje layer of the cerebellum, it significantly reduced its molecular layer and the density of Purkinje cell. Administration of PHT significantly reduced the densities of the granule cells of the dentate gyrus and the pyramidal neurons of the cornu ammonis of hippocampus proper. Co-treatment with kolaviron and vitamin E effectively reversed the PHT-mediated alterations in the hematology, brain antioxidant status and histomophometry when compared to PHT only. Taken together, the present data indicate the abilities of kolaviron and vitamin E to ameliorate phenytoin-induced hematotoxicity and oxidative stress in brains of rats.Toxicology mechanisms and methods 04/2014; · 1.37 Impact Factor