Determinants of Tobacco Use and Renaming the FTND to the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence

Fagerström Consulting, Jordkull 3670, 26878 Kagerod, Sweden.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 3.3). 01/2012; 14(1):75-8. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntr137
Source: PubMed
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Available from: Karl Fagerström, Dec 11, 2014
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    • "CPD is significantly associated with nicotine dependence, but differences in dependence are found to be independent of CPD level [12]. However, high cigarette consumption indicates a strong habit and illustrates aspects of dependence such as the time and effort the smoker dedicate to the behaviour [13]. Nicotine dependence has been widely measured in population-based surveys using different measurements like the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and associated short versions such as the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) and time to first cigarette in the morning (TTFC). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. The study aim was to examine the influence of education and income on multiple measures of risk of smoking continuation. Methods. Three logistic regression models were run on cigarette consumption, dependence, and intention to quit based on nationally representative samples (2007-2012) of approximately 1 200 current smokers aged 30-66 years in Norway. Results. The relative risk ratio for current versus never smokers was RRR 5.37, 95% CI [4.26-6.77] among individuals with low educational level versus high and RRR 1.53, 95% CI [1.14-2.06] in the low-income group versus high (adjusted model). Low educational level was associated with high cigarette consumption, high cigarette dependence, and no intention to quit. The difference in predicted probability for having high cigarette consumption, high cigarette dependence, and no intention to quit were in the range of 10-20 percentage points between smokers with low versus those with high educational level. A significant difference between low- and high-income levels was observed for intention to quit. The effect of education on high consumption and dependence was mainly found in smokers with high income. Conclusion. Increased effort to combat social differences in smoking behaviour is needed. Implementation of smoking cessation programmes with high reach among low socioeconomic groups is recommended.
    08/2015; 2015:835080. DOI:10.1155/2015/835080
    • "Test developers assume that individuals' responses to items will differ depending on the degree to which they possess the underlying trait. For example, smokers who are more nicotine dependent are likely to score higher on the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (Fagerström, 2012) item assessing the number of cigarettes "
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    ABSTRACT: The Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS) is composed of 12-symptoms of nicotine dependence. While it has demonstrated excellent reliability and validity, several psychometric properties have yet to be investigated. We aimed to determine (1) whether items functioned differently across demographic groups, (2) the likelihood that individual symptoms would be endorsed by smokers at different levels of diminished autonomy, and (3) the degree of information provided by each item and the reliability of the full AUTOS across the range of diminished autonomy. Data for this study come from two convenience samples of American adult current smokers (n=777; 69% female; 88% white; Mage=34years, range: 18-78), of whom 66% were daily smokers (Mcigarettes/smoking day=10.1, range: <1-70). Participants completed the AUTOS online as part of "a research study about the experiences people have when they smoke." After p value correction, items remained invariant across sex and minority status, while two items functioned differently according to age, with minimal impact on the total AUTOS score. Discriminative power of the items was high. The greatest amount of information is provided at just under one-half SD above the mean and the least at the extremes of diminished autonomy. The AUTOS maintains acceptable reliability (>0.70) across the range of diminished autonomy within which more than 95% of smokers' scores could be anticipated to fall. The AUTOS is a versatile and psychometrically sound instrument for measuring the loss of autonomy over tobacco use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Addictive Behaviors 02/2015; 45C. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.01.036 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    • "Participants were naïve regarding e-cigarettes and NRT, had a mean age of 33.7 (sd = 13.2), smoked an average of 15.3 (sd = 6.6) cigarettes per day for a minimum of one year (mean = 15; sd = 13.5) and scored three or higher (mean = 5.3; sd = 1.7) on the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD; Fagerström, 2012). Participants were compensated CDN$10 per hour. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been reported to reduce tobacco craving and withdrawal; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been elucidated. Methods: This study examined the contributions of nicotine stimulus and response expectancies to responses to nicotine-free e-cigarettes in 21 e-cigarette naïve smokers (12 male). Participants completed two randomized experimental sessions in which they administered a nicotine-free e-cigarette. During one session they were informed that the e-cigarette contained nicotine and during the other session they were informed that the e-cigarette was nicotine-free. Participants completed subjective assessments before and immediately after sampling ten puffs from the e-cigarette and were then invited to earn additional puffs using a computerized progressive ratio task. Prior to their enrolment in the study, participants provided an estimate of the relative importance of the nicotine content of e-cigarettes for craving relief. Results: Instructions that the e-cigarette contained nicotine were found to reduce both intention to smoke (p=0.017) and withdrawal-related (p=0.018) craving, regardless of a-priori reported beliefs regarding the relative importance of nicotine. Nicotine content instructions were also found to be associated with a shorter latency to self-administration (p=0.005); however, a Sex×Instructions×Response Expectancy interaction (p=0.008) revealed that this effect was specific to women who had strong a-priori nicotine content craving relief expectations. Neither nicotine content instructions nor response expectancies impacted the number of puffs self-administered. Conclusions: Findings suggest that nicotine content expectations contribute to smokers' responses to e-cigarettes, and that a-priori beliefs about nicotine effects may be especially important in women.
    Addictive Behaviors 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.09.013 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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