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Neurocognitive deficits in male alcoholics: An ERP/sLORETA analysis of the N2 component in an equal probability Go/NoGo task

Henri Begleiter Neurodynamics Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Box 1203, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA.
Biological psychology (Impact Factor: 3.47). 01/2012; 89(1):170-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.10.009
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ABSTRACT In alcoholism research, studies concerning time-locked electrophysiological aspects of response inhibition have concentrated mainly on the P3 component of the event-related potential (ERP). The objective of the present study was to investigate the N2 component of the ERP to elucidate possible brain dysfunction related to the motor response and its inhibition using a Go/NoGo task in alcoholics. The sample consisted of 78 abstinent alcoholic males and 58 healthy male controls. The N2 peak was compared across group and task conditions. Alcoholics showed significantly reduced N2 peak amplitudes compared to normal controls for Go as well as NoGo task conditions. Control subjects showed significantly larger NoGo than Go N2 amplitudes at frontal regions, whereas alcoholics did not show any differences between task conditions at frontal regions. Standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis (sLORETA) indicated that alcoholics had significantly lower current density at the source than control subjects for the NoGo condition at bilateral anterior prefrontal regions, whereas the differences between groups during the Go trials were not statistically significant. Furthermore, NoGo current density across both groups revealed significantly more activation in bilateral anterior cingulate cortical (ACC) areas, with the maximum activation in the right cingulate regions. However, the magnitude of this difference was much less in alcoholics compared to control subjects. These findings suggest that alcoholics may have deficits in effortful processing during the motor response and its inhibition, suggestive of possible frontal lobe dysfunction.

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    • "The same pattern of anteriorization among light drinkers was significantly observed in the alcohol modified Go/No-go task. Lower N200 amplitude has previously been observed in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients who performed an equiprobable Go/No-go task as compared to a healthy control group (Pandey et al., 2012). The difference between groups was larger at frontal and central regions, and the N200 was especially affected during No-go trials. "
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    • "With more than 25 channels of scalp EEG recordings, LORETA can have good correspondence with fMRI or positron emission tomography measurements in the same task (Mulert et al., 2004; Pascual-Marqui, 2002; Pizzagalli et al., 2004). The deep brain sources, such as the cingulate cortex (Albert et al., 2012; Huster et al., 2010; Lorenzo-Lopez et al., 2008; Pandey et al., 2012) and the mesial temporal lobe (Zumsteg et al., 2006), have been successfully localized with this approach. Further, it is worth emphasizing that sLORETA has shown its success in analyzing the differences in brain source between NoGo and Go ERPs in previous studies on healthy younger adults or male alcoholics (Albert et al., 2013; Chiu et al., 2008; Pandey et al., 2012). "
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    • "and fronto-central topography of 250–600 ms was identified as P300 ( Picton, 1992 ). For quantitative analysis, the peak amplitude was extracted for a group of electrodes around the maxima of the ERP component ( Pandey et al., 2012 ), such that the N200 was extracted from Fz, FC1, FCz, FC2, and Cz and the P300 from FCz, C1, Cz, C2, and CPz, as reported previously ( Folstein and Van Petten, 2008 ; Sokhadze et al., 2008 ) ( Table 2 ). The grand-averages for each condition, group and selected electrodes as well as the PCA factors and their scalp topographies can be inspected in Fig. 1 "
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