Neurocognitive deficits in male alcoholics: An ERP/sLORETA analysis of the N2 component in an equal probability Go/NoGo task

Henri Begleiter Neurodynamics Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Box 1203, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA.
Biological psychology (Impact Factor: 3.4). 01/2012; 89(1):170-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.10.009
Source: PubMed


In alcoholism research, studies concerning time-locked electrophysiological aspects of response inhibition have concentrated mainly on the P3 component of the event-related potential (ERP). The objective of the present study was to investigate the N2 component of the ERP to elucidate possible brain dysfunction related to the motor response and its inhibition using a Go/NoGo task in alcoholics. The sample consisted of 78 abstinent alcoholic males and 58 healthy male controls. The N2 peak was compared across group and task conditions. Alcoholics showed significantly reduced N2 peak amplitudes compared to normal controls for Go as well as NoGo task conditions. Control subjects showed significantly larger NoGo than Go N2 amplitudes at frontal regions, whereas alcoholics did not show any differences between task conditions at frontal regions. Standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis (sLORETA) indicated that alcoholics had significantly lower current density at the source than control subjects for the NoGo condition at bilateral anterior prefrontal regions, whereas the differences between groups during the Go trials were not statistically significant. Furthermore, NoGo current density across both groups revealed significantly more activation in bilateral anterior cingulate cortical (ACC) areas, with the maximum activation in the right cingulate regions. However, the magnitude of this difference was much less in alcoholics compared to control subjects. These findings suggest that alcoholics may have deficits in effortful processing during the motor response and its inhibition, suggestive of possible frontal lobe dysfunction.

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Available from: Niklas Manz, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "The same pattern of anteriorization among light drinkers was significantly observed in the alcohol modified Go/No-go task. Lower N200 amplitude has previously been observed in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients who performed an equiprobable Go/No-go task as compared to a healthy control group (Pandey et al., 2012). The difference between groups was larger at frontal and central regions, and the N200 was especially affected during No-go trials. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol addictive behaviors are associated with a combination of deficits in executive functions, such as a weak response inhibition, and potent automatic appetitive responses to alcohol-related cues. The aim of the present study was to investigate behavioral responses and Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) associated with specific response inhibition for alcohol-related cues. Thirty participants (15 heavy drinkers and 15 light drinkers) took part in the study. Response inhibition was assessed by a classical letter Go/No-go task and by a modified alcohol Go/No-go task. Participants were also classified as high and low alcohol avoiders. Results showed that heavy drinkers made more false alarms in the letter Go/No-go task. In the alcohol Go/No-go task, an absence of N200 amplitude anteriorization was found in heavy drinkers as compared to light drinkers. Participants with a high level of alcohol avoidance exhibited more false alarms, and higher N200 amplitude for the No-go trials as compared to the Go trials for alcohol-related cues. Higher P300 amplitude was observed in low alcohol avoiders for No-go as compared to Go trials. Therefore, a context involving alcohol-related cues disturbed inhibition capacities of high alcohol avoiders. These results suggest that the level of alcohol avoidance must be taken into account in studies investigating alcohol-related cognitive biases.
    International Journal of Psychophysiology 10/2014; 94(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.08.001 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    • "With more than 25 channels of scalp EEG recordings, LORETA can have good correspondence with fMRI or positron emission tomography measurements in the same task (Mulert et al., 2004; Pascual-Marqui, 2002; Pizzagalli et al., 2004). The deep brain sources, such as the cingulate cortex (Albert et al., 2012; Huster et al., 2010; Lorenzo-Lopez et al., 2008; Pandey et al., 2012) and the mesial temporal lobe (Zumsteg et al., 2006), have been successfully localized with this approach. Further, it is worth emphasizing that sLORETA has shown its success in analyzing the differences in brain source between NoGo and Go ERPs in previous studies on healthy younger adults or male alcoholics (Albert et al., 2013; Chiu et al., 2008; Pandey et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: As a key high-level cognitive function in human beings, response inhibition is crucial for adaptive behavior. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that older individuals exhibit greater neural activation than younger individuals during response inhibition tasks. This finding has been interpreted within a neural compensation framework, in which additional neural resources are recruited in response to age-related cognitive decline. Although this interpretation has received empirical support, the precise event-related temporal course of this age-related compensatory neural response remains unexplored. In the present study, we conducted source analysis on inhibition-related ERP components (i.e., N2 and P3) that were recorded while healthy younger and older adults participated in a visual Go/NoGo task. We found that older adults showed increased source current densities of the N2 and P3 components than younger adults, which supports previous hemodynamic findings. Further, such age-related differences in neural activation were successfully separated between the N2 and P3 periods by source localization analysis. Interestingly, the increased activations in older adults were primarily localized to the right precentral and postcentral gyri during the N2 period, which shifted to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right inferior frontal gyrus during the P3 period. Taken together, our results clearly illustrate the spatiotemporal dynamics of age-related functional brain reorganization, and further specify the exact temporal course at the millisecond scale by which age-related compensatory neural responses occur during response inhibition.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 06/2014; 93(3):371-380. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.05.013 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    • "and fronto-central topography of 250–600 ms was identified as P300 ( Picton, 1992 ). For quantitative analysis, the peak amplitude was extracted for a group of electrodes around the maxima of the ERP component ( Pandey et al., 2012 ), such that the N200 was extracted from Fz, FC1, FCz, FC2, and Cz and the P300 from FCz, C1, Cz, C2, and CPz, as reported previously ( Folstein and Van Petten, 2008 ; Sokhadze et al., 2008 ) ( Table 2 ). The grand-averages for each condition, group and selected electrodes as well as the PCA factors and their scalp topographies can be inspected in Fig. 1 "
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    ABSTRACT: Functional neuroimaging studies have long implicated the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC) in conflict monitoring, but it is not clear whether its structural integrity (i.e., the gray matter volume) influences its conflict monitoring function. In this multimodal study, we used T1-weighted MRI scans as well as event-related potentials (ERPs) to test whether the MCC gray matter volume is associated with the electrocortical marker (i.e., No-go N200 ERP component) of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals. The specificity of such a relationship in health was determined in two ways: by (A) acquiring the same data from individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD), known to have deficits in executive function including behavioral monitoring; and (B) acquiring the P300 ERP component that is linked with attention allocation and not specifically with conflict monitoring. Twenty-five (39.1 ± 8.4 years; 8 females) healthy individuals and 25 (42.7 ± 5.9 years; 6 females) individuals with CUD underwent a rewarded Go/No-go task during which the ERP data was collected, and they also underwent a structural MRI scan. The whole brain regression analysis showed a significant correlation between MCC structural integrity and the well-known ERP measure of conflict monitoring (N200, but not the P300) in healthy individuals, which was absent in CUD who were characterized by reduced MCC gray matter volume, N200 abnormalities as well as reduced task accuracy. In individuals with CUD instead, the N200 amplitude was associated with drug addiction symptomatology. These results show that the integrity of MCC volume is directly associated with the electrocortical correlates of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals, and such an association breaks down in psychopathologies that impact these brain processes. Taken together, this MCC-N200 association may serve as a biomarker of improved behavioral monitoring processes in diseased populations.
    Clinical neuroimaging 06/2014; 5:10-8. DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2014.05.011 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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