Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical
analysis of infectious agents, T-cell
subpopulations and inflammatory adhesion
molecules in placentas from HIV-seropositive
Emanuele Baurakiades1, Ana PC Martins2, N Victor Moreschi2*, Camila DA Souza2, Karla Abujamra2,
Augusto O Saito2, Maíra C Mecatti2, Mônica G Santos2, Camilla R Pimentel2, Larissa LG Silva3, Cristina R Cruz4and
Lucia de Noronha2
Background: The aim of this study was to compare histomorphometric changes and the results of
immunohistochemical tests for VCAM, ICAM-1, CD4 and CD8 in normal placentas from HIV-seropositive pregnant
Methods: Samples of normal placentas were divided into 2 groups: healthy HIV-seronegative pregnant women
(control group = C = 60) and HIV-seropositive women (experimental group = E = 57). Conventional histological
sections were submitted to morphometric analysis and evaluated in terms of the immunohistochemical expression
of ICAM-1, VCAM, CD4 and CD8.
Results: The villi in group E were smaller than those in group C. The median for the CD8+ T cell count was higher
in group E than in group C (p = 0.03). Immunohistochemical expression of ICAM-1 was observed in 57% of the
cases in group E, compared with 21% of those in group C (p = 0.001). There was no difference in VCAM
expression or CD4+ cell counts between groups and no correlation between the data for antiretroviral therapy and
morphometric or immunohistochemical data.
Conclusions: The morphometric data showed that placentas of HIV-seropositive pregnant women tend to have
smaller villi than those of seronegative women. In addition, immunohistochemical testing for infectious agents
helped to identify cases that were positive for microorganisms (6/112) that routine pathological examination had
failed to detect. The anti-p24 antibody had a limited ability to detect HIV viral protein in this study (2/57).
Correlation of immunohistochemical expression of CD8+ T cells and ICAM-1 with the presence of HIV in the
placenta revealed that those expressions can act as biomarkers of inflammatory changes. There was no correlation
between the data for antiretroviral therapy and morphometric or immunohistochemical data.
Keywords: HIV, p24, CD4, CD8, ICAM, VCAM, placenta
* Correspondence: email@example.com
2Laboratory of Experimental Pathology of Center of Health and Biological
Sciences, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, (Imaculada Conceição),
Curitiba, (80215-901), Brazil
Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
Baurakiades et al. Diagnostic Pathology 2011, 6:101
© 2011 Baurakiades et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Vertical transmission of HIV is the main route of HIV
infection in children. In Brazil this route is responsible
for more than 80% of HIV cases in children under 13
years of age and for almost all cases currently diagnosed
in this age group. By June 2004, a total of 9162 cases of
vertically transmitted HIV had been reported in Brazil,
or 2.5% of all AIDS cases reported in this country.
Although the placenta acts as a barrier to vertical
transmission, trophoblasts can become infected through
cell-to-cell transmission during this first phase because
they are in close contact with maternal blood vessels.
The first contact between trophoblast and decidual
cells, and hence with maternal blood, occurs during the
first trimester. However, in utero transmission of HIV
during the first trimester is rare.
Although the placenta provides a natural barrier to
HIV-1 infection, the risk of vertical transmission
increases in the presence of chorioamnionitis and other
chronic infections, such as syphilis, toxoplasmosis, hepa-
titis B and C and infections caused by viruses from the
family Herpesviridae, which are known to be responsible
for altering the placental barrier[3,4].
Pathological examination of placentas in HIV-seropo-
sitive women can help in the diagnosis of acute and
chronic infections. However, these placentas can have
minimal alterations or even be histologically normal.
Small increases in the number of macrophages and T
cells in the villous stroma, thickening of the basement
membrane in the syncytiotrophoblast and foci of necro-
sis in the placental villi have been described.
This study aimed to analyze normal placentas from
HIV-seropositive women by correlating data on villous
morphometry and immunohistochemical findings with
data from the medical records of the respective pregnant
women and their newborns.
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of normal
placentas from HIV-seropositive women who gave birth
between the years 2003 and 2005 at the Hospital de
Clínicas, Federal University of Paraná (HC-UFPR) were
Four histological sections from all the placentas were
reviewed and found to be histologically normal. We did
not observe pathological lesions or maturation changes,
and weights of the newborns were normal for gesta-
tional age. The placentas were from pregnant women
who had been diagnosed with HIV before or during
their pregnancy, and whose newborns had been followed
up until the state of their HIV infection had been
defined. Patients who abandoned the follow-up before
HIV status had been defined were excluded from the
study. Placentas from seropositive women who
presented with maternal/fetal diseases, such as arterial
hypertension, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, dia-
betes mellitus, gestational diabetes, negative Rh factor
and intrauterine growth retardation were also excluded.
Infants with two viral RNA measurements below the
detection threshold were considered to be uninfected.
Children with two consecutive viral RNA measurements
above the threshold were considered to be infected.
The sample was made up of 116 cases, 57 of which
were HIV-seropositive (the study group) and 60 serone-
gative (the control group, with the same inclusion/exclu-
sion criteria as the study group). The samples in both
groups were paired by gestational age, which varied
from 25 to 42 weeks.
Serological and therapeutic data for the women and
their newborns (age and viral load of the mother, antire-
troviral therapy administered to the mother and gesta-
tional age, as well as the weight and current serological
status of the newborn) were obtained from medical
records for subsequent analysis together with morpho-
metric and immunohistochemical data.
All the cases in the study were examined under an
optical microscope using hematoxylin eosin-stained
slides with samples covering the whole thickness of pla-
centa. The villi were analyzed morphometrically at 20×
magnification using an Olympus®BX50 binocular
microscope attached to a DELL®computer running
Image Pro Plus®software. Morphometry consisted of
linear measurements of the perimeter and area of the
villous surface based on a freehand drawing. The villi of
the central portion of the placenta were used for this
purpose; the chorionic plate and marginal villi were not
used. The sampling error was calculated to determine
the number of villi to be measured for each case (n =
116). A total of 100 villi were measured and an average
of the 100 measurements was used.
For the immunohistochemical tests, histological sec-
tions were used to detect infectious antigens, lympho-
cyte subpopulations and inflammatory adhesion
molecules by means of immunoperoxidase staining.
Monoclonal anti-p24 (Dako®) and anti-cytomegalovirus
(Zymed®) antibodies and polyclonal rabbit anti-Toxo-
plasma gondii (ABR®), anti-Treponema pallidum
(Dako®) and anti-herpes simplex virus type I and II
antibodies, as well as anti-VCAM, anti-ICAM-1, anti-
CD4 and anti-CD8 antibodies (all from Novocastra®)
were used as primary antibodies.
The immunohistochemistry technique used included
deparaffinization in warm xylol (37°C) and the use of
methyl alcohol and H2O2for the first endogenous per-
oxidase blocking, followed by distilled water and H2O2
for the second. Antigen retrieval was carried out using
BioSB®antigen unmasking solution with citrate in a
water bath at 99°C for 20 minutes. The primary
Baurakiades et al. Diagnostic Pathology 2011, 6:101
Page 2 of 7
antibodies were incubated overnight at the recom-
mended dilutions. EnVision®+Dual Link/Peroxidase, a
dextran polymer from Dakocytomation®, was used for
30 minutes as the secondary antibody. Staining was
developed by adding DAB chromogen and substrate to
the slides, which were counterstained with Harris’s
hematoxylin. Positive and negative controls were used
for all the reactions.
An Olympus BX50 microscope was used to identify
positive immunohistochemical reactions. Slides were
recorded as being positive or negative for the HIV p24
antigen, herpes simplex virus types I and II, Treponema
pallidum, cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma gondii, VCAM
and ICAM-1. The readings for the slides with anti-CD4
and anti-CD8 were based on the number of cells per
high-power field (HPF) that were positive for these mar-
kers. Thirty HPFs were counted and only positive cells
that were inside the stroma villous were included.
For statistical analysis, cases were classified as either
positive or negative for the p24 antigen (HIV), herpes
simplex virus type I and II, Treponema pallidum, cyto-
megalovirus, Toxoplasma gondii and to VCAM and
ICAM-1. To analyze the immunohistochemistry results
for CD4 and CD8, we used the means and medians of
the positive cell counts for each sample. The areas and
perimeters of the placental villi from the HIV-seroposi-
tive and HIV-seronegative pregnant women were com-
pared using the Student t-test for independent samples
or the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test, as appropri-
ate. The other variables were compared in a similar way
using the Fisher exact test. Comparison, of the area and
perimeter together was carried out using Rao’s statistic.
A significance level of p < 0.05 was used. The study was
approved by the ethics committee of the Hospital de
Clínicas, Curitiba, Brazil.
Approximately half (52%) of the study population was
aged between 20 and 30 years. Pregnancies were carried
to term by 77.19% and 63.33% of the HIV-seropositive
and HIV-seronegative women, respectively (Table 1).
Slightly over three-quarters (75.44%) of the newborns in
the HIV-seropositive group weighed more than 2500
grams, while the corresponding figure for the HIV-sero-
negative group was 71.67% (Table 1). Analysis of gesta-
tional age and weight of newborns showed that there
were no significant differences between the HIV-seropo-
sitive and HIV-seronegative groups (Table 2).
Two of the newborns had HIV, and one of these died
(the vertical transmission rate in this study was 3.51%).
Morphometric analysis showed that there were signifi-
cant differences between the areas and perimeters of the
villi in placentas from HIV-seropositive women and the
corresponding areas and perimeters for HIV-seronega-
tive women, the mean values for the latter group being
higher (Table 2). These results suggest that the villi in
placentas from the HIV-seronegative group may be lar-
ger than those from the HIV-seropositive group. Statisti-
cal analysis excluding cases in which pregnancies were
not carried to term (gestational age of 25/36 weeks)
failed to reveal any changes in the statistically significant
No statistically significant differences were found
between the two groups of women in terms of the
results for the immunohistochemical tests to detect p24
and antigens from Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus,
herpes simplex I and II and Treponema pallidum (Table
3). Viral load measurements in the newborns whose pla-
centas were positive for p24 (two placentas) failed to
confirm maternal-fetal transmission. In contrast, the pla-
centas of the two cases with fetal transmission were not
positive for the p24 antigen.
ICAM-I was expressed both in vessels of the villous
stroma and in Hofbauer cells. Expression of this mole-
cule was observed in a larger percentage of cases in the
HIV-seropositive group (57%), compared with only 21%
of the cases in the control group. VCAM-1 was
expressed in a small number of cases in both groups
(3.6% in the seropositive group and 5.2% in the serone-
gative group) and was always observed in the vessels of
the villous stroma (table 3).
CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts showed that there was a
greater prevalence of CD8+ T cells in the HIV-seroposi-
tive women. No statistically significant difference in the
Table 1 Gestational age (weeks) and weight of the newborns (grams) data
GESTATIONAL AGE (WEEKS) NUMBER OF CASES OF HIV-SEROPOSITIVE (n = 57)NUMBER OF CASES OF HIV-SERONEGATIVE (n = 60)
31/36 WEEKS10 13
37/42 WEEKS44 38
WEIGHT OF THE NEWBORNS NUMBER OF CASES OF HIV-SEROPOSITIVE NUMBER OF CASES OF HIV-SERONEGATIVE
< 1000 GRAMS26
BETWEEN 1000 AND 2500 GRAMS 12 11
› 2500 GRAMS43 43
Baurakiades et al. Diagnostic Pathology 2011, 6:101
Page 3 of 7
number of CD4+ cells was observed in the placentas
analyzed. CD4+ T cells were inconspicuous in all the
cases, and the cells with the greatest positivity for CD4
were Hofbauer cells. The median CD8+ T cell count in
HIV-seropositive pregnant women was 1.87 per HPF,
and the corresponding figure in the control group was
1.46. This difference was statistically significant (p =
0.03) (Table 3).
Analysis of the viral loads revealed that these were
measured between three and six times for most of the
patients and that 54.1% had an initial viral load, during
the first trimester of gestation, of less than 1000 copies.
Taking the average of the three main viral loads mea-
sured during the pregnancies, we found that 72% of the
women had a mean value of more than 2000 copies
(Table 4). Comparison of the area and perimeter of the
villi, ICAM-1 expression and CD8+ T-cell concentration
with mean patient viral load failed to reveal any statisti-
cally significant correlations.
The use of appropriate antiretroviral therapy in the
HIV-seropositive women and its relationship with mar-
kers of the disease were also analyzed. Antiretroviral
therapy administered for at least one month no later than
one month before the birth was considered appropriate
therapy (therapy +), while antiretroviral therapy adminis-
tered for less than one month prior to the birth or failure
to administer therapy was considered inappropriate or
absent therapy (therapy -). No statistically significant cor-
relation was observed between CD8+ T-cell count or the
area and perimeter of the villi and the use of antiretro-
viral drugs. However, a correlation was observed with
ICAM-1 expression, which was higher in the group that
had received therapy (p = 0.03), as well as with viral load,
which was lower in the same group (p = 0.01) (Table 5).
The statistically significant results continued to be sta-
tistically signficant when cases that were positive for
infectious agents as confirmed by immunohistochemical
reaction were excluded from the statistical analysis.
Table 2 Demographic profile of the pregnant women and morphometric data for the placental villi (in microns).
MEAN OF HIV- SEROPOSITIVE GROUP MEAN OF HIV- SERONEGATIVE GROUP
AGE OF THE PREGNANT WOMEN (YEARS)26.68 26.11 0.694
GESTATIONAL AGE (WEEKS)36.9536.38 0.714
WEIGHT OF THE NEWBORNS (GRAMS)2830.633071.520.166
AREA OF PLACENTAL VILLI (MICRONS)3932.94 4339.930.014
PERIMETER OF PLACENTAL VILLI (MICRONS)246.15 258.050.015
KEY: p = confidence interval <0.05.
Table 3 Results of immunohistochemical analysis for infections, adhesion molecules and subpopulations of T
HIV- SEROPOSITIVE GROUPHIV- SEROPOSITIVE GROUP
ICAM-1 POSITIVE2912 0.0013
ICAM-1 NEGATIVE2848 0.0013
VCAM POSITIVE02 03 0.8300
VCAM NEGATIVE55 57 0.8300
CD4 MEAN 1.471.490.6389
CD4 MEDIAN0.67 0.750.6389
CD4 STANDARD DEVIATION2.81 2.140.6389
CD8 MEAN1.251.75 0.0316
CD8 MEDIAN1.461.87 0.0316
CD8 STANDARD DEVIATION1.131.11 0.0316
TOTAL NUMBER OF CASES 57 60-
KEY: p24 = number of cases positive for p24; Toxoplasmosis, syphilis, herpes and CMV = number of cases positive for anti-Toxoplasma gondii, anti-
cytomegalovirus, anti-CMV and anti-herpes antibodies; ICAM-1positive/negative = number of cases positive/negative for anti-ICAM-1; VCAM positive/negative =
number of cases positive/negative for anti-VCAM; CD4/CD8 mean/median/standard deviation = mean and median CD4+ or CD8+ counts (and standard
deviations) in placental villi, p = confidence interval of less than 0.05
Baurakiades et al. Diagnostic Pathology 2011, 6:101
Page 4 of 7
The importance of pathological examination of the pla-
centa in HIV-seropositive mothers has been recognized
by health professionals for some years, as it allows several
diseases to be diagnosed and also provides additional
information and statistical data. In general, the placen-
tas of mothers who are only HIV-seropositive have a nor-
mal macroscopic and microscopic appearance, as was the
case in the patients selected for this study.5However, as
observed in our study, when samples from these normal
placentas are analyzed using more specific and sensitive
methods such as immunohistochemistry and molecular
biology, they do not yield normal results.
The morphometric findings of this study also revealed
changes in the diameter and perimeter of the placental
villi of HIV-seropositive women that were suggestive of
changes in villous maturation and may have been caused
by the viral infection itself and/or even use of antiretro-
The frequency of positive immunohistochemical
results for microorganisms that cause intrauterine infec-
tions was the same in placentas from HIV-seropositive
women and placentas from HIV-seronegative women, a
finding that has been reported in the literature, and this
fact could be particularly true in the normal placenta
samples of HIV-seropositive pregnant.
Our results for immunohistochemical testing
revealed the presence of HIV viral proteins (p24) in
two samples even in the absence of histological lesions
[6,8]. The low number of cases in which p24 was
detected (2/57) may be related to the low expression
of this marker, since it can cross-react with endogen-
ous antigens, leading to false positive or false negative
results[3,9]. However, the absence of positive results in
the control group indicates that the antibody against
p24 used in the test did not yield false positive results.
Furthermore, studies have shown that the virus is not
detected by the anti-p24 antibody in patients under-
going antiretroviral treatment. Although Lee and
Tschening-Casper detected HIV sequences by PCR
in placental cells from HIV-seropositive women who
were receiving antiretroviral therapy, the placentas did
not have any macroscopic or histological abnormalities,
and immunohistochemical analysis failed to detect
HIV-1 p24 antigens.
In our study we observed positive reactions in some
cytotrophoblast cells and Hofbauer cells in the placentas
that were positive for p24. When human placentas
infected with HIV in utero or in vitro were analyzed by
PCR, the HIV-1 virus was found to be distributed
mainly in syncytiotrophoblast and Hofbauer cells . In
addition, in several studies HIV-1 sequences were
detected in both chorionic villi and trophoblasts in all
the placentas analyzed, indicating that the virus
sequences are always present in the placentas of these
patients, even in the absence of morphological altera-
tions and immunohistochemical expression characteris-
tic of HIV[12,13].
The elevated expression of ICAM-1 in the placentas of
HIV-seropositive women observed in this study may
indicate that this molecule can act as an inflammatory
marker of this disease. Similarly, the elevated expres-
sion of this molecule in the vascular endothelium and
the cytoplasm of Hofbauer cells in placental villi may
Table 4 Viral load data for seropositive patients analyzed in this study
NUMBER OF VIRAL COPIESINITIAL VIRAL LOAD4THVIRAL LOAD MEAN OF 3 VIRAL LOADS MEAN OF ALL THE VIRAL
NUMBER PERCENTAGE NUMBER PERCENTAGENUMBER PERCENTAGENUMBER PERCENTAGE
<100013 54.19 22.55 13.55 13.8
<20001 4.13 7.55 13.51 2.7
<100005 20.81127.5 13 35.110 27.7
>100005 20.8 17 42.514 37.820 55.5
TOTAL 2440 37 36
KEY: Number/Percentage = number and percentage of pregnant women for whom the measurements of the first and fourth viral loads, the mean of the first
three loads and the mean of all the loads were equal to the viral load shown.
Table 5 Correlation between the use of antiretroviral
therapy and immunohistochemical, morphometric and
viral load data.
THERAPY +THERAPY -
CD8 + MEDIAN1.751.5 0.6324
AREA MEDIAN3711.84 3972.13 0.2940
PERIMETER MEDIAN243.21248.66 0.5580
MEDIAN OF 3 VIRAL LOAD 5841.6719446.670.0165
KEY: therapy += patients who had antiretroviral therapy for at least 1 month
before giving birth; therapy - = patients who only had loading doses or did
not undergo antiretroviral therapy; ICAM-1+ = number of cases with
immunohistochemical expression of ICAM-1; median CD8+ = median CD8+ T
cell count; median area/perimeter = median of area and perimeter in microns
of placental villi; median of 3 viral loads = median of the three first viral loads;
p = confidence interval of less than 0.05.
Baurakiades et al. Diagnostic Pathology 2011, 6:101
Page 5 of 7
indicate that the HIV virus has passed through the pla-
cental barrier, since ICAM is the molecule that mediates
the entry of the virus into the macrophage. After the
virus has penetrated the placental villi, it can adsorb to
the surface of the ICAM molecules and mediate infec-
tions in T cells and Hofbauer cells. The presence of
the virus in the placental villi is also suggested the by
large number of CD8+ T cells in the HIV-seropositive
women (p = 0.03).
There was no statistically significant difference in the
expression of CD4+ cells between the two groups. CD4
+ T cells were inconspicuous inside the chorionic villi.
However, large numbers of Hofbauer cells were positive
for CD4. CD4+ T cells inside the chorionic villi may
mediate control of HIV infection and possible another
infections in the placenta.
The binding of HIV viral particles to CD4+ receptors
on the surface of Hofbauer cells after the particles have
adsorbed to ICAM molecules may be the main trans-
mission path for HIV inside the villous stroma in pla-
centas. Once adsorbed to ICAM molecules, the viral
particles can bind to Hofbauer cells by means of these
molecules and use their migratory ability to reach the
fetal vessels and then infect the conceptus’s cells.15In
light of our results for CD4+ count and ICAM-1 expres-
sion in placental villi, it is reasonable to suppose that
entry of the virus into the fetal circulatory system may
be intimately related to the CD4+ Hofbauer cells found
in the villous stroma.
CD8+ T cells were present in greater quantities in the
placentas of the HIV-seropositive women, probably
because they are associated with anti-viral immune
responses against HIV. Although the early villitis of
unknown etiology are defined by villi injury, presence of
maternal CD8+ T cells and presence of hyperplasic Hof-
bauer cells, there were no morphological changes com-
patible with villitis in this study. It might represent a
very early stage of this entity which only would show
immunohistochemical changes. Otherwise, these immu-
nohistochemical findings might represent early changes
of a specific villitis by HIV, but not a villitis of unknown
The increased immunohistochemical expression of
CD8 in the placentas of HIV-seropositive patients may
be intimately related to the presence of cytotoxic CD8+
T cells specific to HIV. Acute HIV infection is charac-
terized by an increased number of cytotoxic CD8+ T
cells involved in the control of the viremia. These lym-
phocytes play an important role in acute and chronic
HIV infection, and an increase in their number may
contribute significantly to protection against intrauterine
transmission of HIV. Cells that contain HIV gp120
glycoprotein (an envelope antigen) in their plasma mem-
brane are recognized by activated cytotoxic CD8+ T
lymphocytes, which destroy not only the virus but also
the whole cell by releasing cytolytic substances . As
well as mediating cytolytic activity, CD8+ T cells can
suppress HIV by secreting a factor, or set of factors,
known as CD8 cell antiviral factor (CAF). CAF can
block CCR5 and CXCR4 receptors by transcription reg-
ulation and consequently prevent viral replication .
These CD8+ T cells are able to produce a cytokine
response similar to that in adults. In congenital infec-
tion, newborns can develop a mature CD8+ T-cell
response to cytomegalovirus similar to that detected in
adults . Another factor that may be associated with
the presence of CD8+ T cells in the placentas of HIV-
seropositive women is that these cells are able to pro-
duce antiviral factors mediated by HIV-specific IgG sti-
mulation. These specific antibodies are transferred
efficiently from the mother to the conceptus through
The low expression of VCAM in both groups may be
associated with the low stimulation of cytokines that
mediate the expression of VCAM on the cell surface. If
it is assumed that these placentas did not have active
infections, then they did not need VCAM to be acti-
vated to recruit activated T cells.
Analysis of the viral load counts showed that 72% of
the pregnant women had mean viral loads in excess of
two thousand copies. This may indicate that the study
population had not received effective treatment as in the
majority of cases the viral load was higher than 50
copies (Table 4). Our results also showed that the viral
loads did not affect expression of ICAM-1, CD8+ T-cell
concentrations or the area or perimeter of the placental
When we analyzed the medical records, we separated
patients into those who had received treatment for an
appropriate period and those who had not. When these
two groups were analyzed, no correlation was found
with CD8+ cells counts and the area or perimeter of the
placental villi. In other words, antiretroviral therapy did
not appear to have been responsible for the increased
CD8+ cells count or the reduced perimeter and area of
placental villi in the HIV-seropositive women. However,
a correlation was identified between antiretroviral ther-
apy and immunohistochemical expression of ICAM-1,
which appeared to be higher in patients who had
received this therapy. There was also a correlation
between antiretroviral therapy and mean viral load,
which, as expected, was smaller in this group although
it was not less than 50 copies, the limit of detection
defined by WHO.
In conclusion, the morphometric data show that seropo-
sitive placentas tend to have smaller villi than
Baurakiades et al. Diagnostic Pathology 2011, 6:101
Page 6 of 7
seronegative ones. In addition, immunohistochemical
examination for infectious agents helped to identify
cases that were positive for microorganisms (6/112) that
routine pathological tests had failed to detect. The anti-
p24 antibody proved not to have a high rate of detection
of HIV viral protein in this study (2/57). Correlation of
immunohistochemical expression of CD8+ T cells and
ICAM-1 with the presence of HIV in the placenta
revealed that these markers might be acting as biomar-
kers of nonspecific inflammation. Otherwise, they might
be acting as biomarkers for specific injured by HIV
infection or another unknown coinfeccion.
We would like to acknowledge Andrea Moreno and Sonia M Raboni for
revising it critically.
1Center of Health and Biological Sciences, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do
Paraná, (Imaculada Conceição), Curitiba, (80215-901), Brazil.2Laboratory of
Experimental Pathology of Center of Health and Biological Sciences,
Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, (Imaculada Conceição), Curitiba,
(80215-901), Brazil.3Pathological Anatomy Department, Universidade Federal
do Paraná, (General Carneiro), Curitiba, (80060-900), Brazil.4Pediatric
Department, Institute: Universidade Federal do Paraná, (General Carneiro),
Curitiba, (80060-900), Brazil.
VMN, intellectual author, wrote the paper. EB: intellectual author, wrote the
paper. APC: immunohistochemistry tests. CRP: immunohistochemistry tests.
MM: immunohistochemistry tests. MGS: morphometric results. CDAS:
morphometric results. KA: morphometric results. LLGS:
immunohistochemistry results. AOS: immunohistochemistry results. CRC:
newborns data. LN: intellectual author, wrote the paper. All authors read and
approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Received: 20 May 2011 Accepted: 24 October 2011
Published: 24 October 2011
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Cite this article as: Baurakiades et al.: Histomorphometric and
immunohistochemical analysis of infectious agents, T-cell
subpopulations and inflammatory adhesion molecules in placentas
from HIV-seropositive pregnant women. Diagnostic Pathology 2011 6:101.
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Baurakiades et al. Diagnostic Pathology 2011, 6:101
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