Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of infectious agents, T-cell subpopulations and inflammatory adhesion molecules in placentas from HIV-seropositive pregnant women

Laboratory of Experimental Pathology of Center of Health and Biological Sciences, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.
Diagnostic Pathology (Impact Factor: 2.6). 10/2011; 6(1):101. DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-6-101
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to compare histomorphometric changes and the results of immunohistochemical tests for VCAM, ICAM-1, CD4 and CD8 in normal placentas from HIV-seropositive pregnant women.
Samples of normal placentas were divided into 2 groups: healthy HIV-seronegative pregnant women (control group = C = 60) and HIV-seropositive women (experimental group = E = 57). Conventional histological sections were submitted to morphometric analysis and evaluated in terms of the immunohistochemical expression of ICAM-1, VCAM, CD4 and CD8.
The villi in group E were smaller than those in group C. The median for the CD8+ T cell count was higher in group E than in group C (p = 0.03). Immunohistochemical expression of ICAM-1 was observed in 57% of the cases in group E, compared with 21% of those in group C (p = 0.001). There was no difference in VCAM expression or CD4+ cell counts between groups and no correlation between the data for antiretroviral therapy and morphometric or immunohistochemical data.
The morphometric data showed that placentas of HIV-seropositive pregnant women tend to have smaller villi than those of seronegative women. In addition, immunohistochemical testing for infectious agents helped to identify cases that were positive for microorganisms (6/112) that routine pathological examination had failed to detect. The anti-p24 antibody had a limited ability to detect HIV viral protein in this study (2/57). Correlation of immunohistochemical expression of CD8+ T cells and ICAM-1 with the presence of HIV in the placenta revealed that those expressions can act as biomarkers of inflammatory changes. There was no correlation between the data for antiretroviral therapy and morphometric or immunohistochemical data.

Download full-text


Available from: Victor Moreschi Neto,
  • Source
    • "STZ can be used to induce different types of diabetes. For example, to produce experimental models of Type 1 diabetes, mice are treated with high doses of STZ, which depletesb -cells [8,10,11]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetes in humans induces chronic complications such as cardiovascular damage, cataracts and retinopathy, nephropathy and polyneuropathy. The most common animal model of human diabetes is streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in the rat. The present study investigated the effects of Nigella sativa hydroalcholic extract on glucose concentrations in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. In this study Twenty-five Wister-Albino rats (aged 8-9 weeks and weighing 200-250 g) were tested. Rats were divided into five experimental groups (control, untreated STZ-diabetic (60 mg/kg B.W., IP), treated STZ-diabetic with hydroalcholic extract of Nigella Sativa (NS) (5 mg/kg B.W, IP), treated STZ-diabetic with hydroalcholic extract of NS(10 mg/kg B.W., IP) and treated STZ-diabetic with hydroalcholic extract of NS(20 mg/kg B.W., IP and 32 days were evaluated to assess its effect on fasting blood glucose (FBG), and in different groups fasting blood glucose (FBG) and body weight (BW) were measured in the particular days (1, 16 and 32). At the end of the study, the animals were fasted overnight, a anaesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital (60 mg/kg), and sacrificed for obtaining tissues samples (liver, pancreases). The number of islets and cells were counted and the islet diameters were determined by calibrated micrometer. The glycogen content in the liver wasexamined by Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Treatment with NS (5 mg/kg b.w.) markedly increased BW gain and the FBG level was significantly (p<0.001) reduced when compared to the control. Histopathological examination showed that the NS (5 mg/kg b.w.) partially recovered hepatic glycogen content and protected the great deal of the pancreatic islet cells. The number of islets, cells and islets diameter were found statistically significant when compared to the control (p<0.01, p<0.05). Higher doses of NS did not exhibit any therapeutic effect. These results showed that hydroalcholic extract of NS at low doses has hypoglycemic effect and ameliorative effect on regeneration of pancreatic islets and may be used as a therapeutic agent in the management ofdiabetes mellitus. The hypoglycemic effect observed could be due to amelioration of beta-cell, thus leading to increased insulin levels. Consequently, N. sativa may prove clinically usefulin the treatment of diabetics and in the protection of beta-cells against streptozotocin.Virtual slide: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1845133011104231.
    Diagnostic Pathology 08/2013; 8(1):137. DOI:10.1186/1746-1596-8-137 · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The T215Y mutation was observed in 13% of the sequences while T215F was detected in 6%. Clinical studies have shown that the NEMs, particularly mutations at position 215, interfere with the clinical response to zidovudine, stavudine, abacavir, didanosine, and most dual NRTI combinations [30]. Mutations conferring resistance to NNRTIs were also seen, with one strain showing resistance only to NNRTIs. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study we report the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistant HIV-1 genotypes of virus isolated from Djiboutian patients who failed first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) and from ART naïve patients.A total of 35 blood samples from 16 patients who showed first-line ART failure (>1000 viral genome copies/ml) and 19 ART-naïve patients were collected in Djibouti from October 2009 to December 2009. Both the protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes were amplified and sequenced using National Agency for AIDS Research (ANRS) protocols. The Stanford HIV database algorithm was used for interpretation of resistance data and genotyping.Among the 16 patients with first-line ART failure, nine (56.2%) showed reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 strains: two (12.5%) were resistant to nucleoside (NRTI), one (6.25%) to non-nucleoside (NNRTI) reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and six (37.5%) to both. Analysis of the DNA sequencing data indicated that the most common mutations conferring drug resistance were M184V (38%) for NRTI and K103N (25%) for NNRTI. Only NRTI primary mutations K101Q, K103N and the PI minor mutation L10V were found in ART naïve individuals. No protease inhibitor resistant strains were detected. In our study, we found no detectable resistance in ∼ 44% of all patients who experienced therapeutic failure which was explained by low compliance, co-infection with tuberculosis and malnutrition. Genotyping revealed that 65.7% of samples were infected with subtype C, 20% with CRF02_AG, 8.5% with B, 2.9% with CRF02_AG/C and 2.9% with K/C.The results of this first study about drug resistance mutations in first-line ART failures show the importance of performing drug resistance mutation test which guides the choice of a second-line regimen. This will improve the management of HIV-infected Djiboutian patients.The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2051206212753973.
    Diagnostic Pathology 10/2012; 7(1):138. DOI:10.1186/1746-1596-7-138 · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To verify the ultrafine conformation of term villi in diabetic and normal placentae. Villar dysmaturity and chorangiosis are considered the most frequent findings in diabetic placentae, but their histogenesis is still unclear. We performed a morphometric study of 38 term villi in 5 diabetic placentae and of 37 term villi of 5 normal placentae in order to know the different extension of endothelial surface (VL), the maximum (D max) and minimum (D min) distance of the vessels from the basal membrane, as well as the exact thickness of basal membrane (MT BM). The villi were examined with transmission electron microscopy, and parameters were automatically acquired with the iTEM software (Soft Imaging System, Münster, Germany). VL results were statistically higher in diabetic placentae than in normal ones. Also D max and D min were higher in diabetic disease. MT BM was not different in the two groups. Our findings show that, in the presence of chorangiosis, the vessel surface in diabetic placentae is higher than in normal group, but the vessels are randomly distributed in term villi. The basal membrane is not different in the two groups. Morphometric evaluation seems to be more accurate using ultrafine samples.
    Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology / the International Academy of Cytology [and] American Society of Cytology 10/2012; 34(5):239-47. · 0.49 Impact Factor
Show more

We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on ResearchGate. Read our cookies policy to learn more.