Histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A enhances myogenesis by coordinating muscle regulatory factors and myogenic repressors.
ABSTRACT Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are known to promote skeletal muscle formation. However, their mechanisms that include effects on the expression of major muscle components such as the dystrophin-associated proteins complex (DAPC) or myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of HDACIs on skeletal muscle formation using the C2C12 cell culture system. C2C12 myoblasts were exposed to trichostatin A (TSA), one of the most potent HDACIs, and differentiation was subsequently induced. We found that TSA enhances the expression of myosin heavy chain without affecting DAPC expression. In addition, TSA increases the expression of the early MRFs, Myf5 and MEF2, whereas it suppresses the expression of the late MRF, myogenin. Interestingly, TSA also enhances the expression of Id1, Id2, and Id3 (Ids). Ids are myogenic repressors that inhibit myogenic differentiation. These findings suggest that TSA promotes gene expression in proliferation and suppresses it in the differentiation stage of muscle formation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TSA enhances myogenesis by coordinating the expression of MRFs and myogenic repressors.
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ABSTRACT: Studying chemical disturbances during neural differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has been established as an alternative in vitro testing approach for the identification of developmental neurotoxicants. miRNAs represent a class of small non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of neural development and ESC differentiation and specification. Thus, neural differentiation of mESCs in vitro allows investigating the role of miRNAs in chemical-mediated developmental toxicity. We analyzed changes in miRNome and transcriptome during neural differentiation of mESCs exposed to the developmental neurotoxicant sodium valproate (VPA). A total of 110 miRNAs and 377 mRNAs were identified differently expressed in neurally differentiating mESCs upon VPA treatment. Based on miRNA profiling we observed that VPA shifts the lineage specification from neural to myogenic differentiation (upregulation of muscle-abundant miRNAs, mir-206, mir-133a and mir-10a, and downregulation of neural-specific mir-124a, mir-128 and mir-137). These findings were confirmed on the mRNA level and via immunochemistry. Particularly, the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) as well as muscle-specific genes (Actc1, calponin, myosin light chain, asporin, decorin) were found elevated, while genes involved in neurogenesis (e.g. Otx1, 2, and Zic3, 4, 5) were repressed. These results were specific for valproate treatment and-based on the following two observations-most likely due to the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity: (i) we did not observe any induction of muscle-specific miRNAs in neurally differentiating mESCs exposed to the unrelated developmental neurotoxicant sodium arsenite; and (ii) the expression of muscle-abundant mir-206 and mir-10a was similarly increased in cells exposed to the structurally different HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Based on our results we conclude that miRNA expression profiling is a suitable molecular endpoint for developmental neurotoxicity. The observed lineage shift into myogenesis, where miRNAs may play an important role, could be one of the developmental neurotoxic mechanisms of VPA.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e98892. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons. Familial ALS is strongly associated to dominant mutations in the gene for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Recent evidences point to skeletal muscle as a primary target in the ALS mouse model. Wnt/PI3 K signaling pathways and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have important roles in maintenance and repair of skeletal muscle. Wnt/PI3 K pathways and EMT gene expression profile were investigated in gastrocnemius muscle from SOD1(G93A) mouse model and age-paired wild-type control in the presymptomatic ages of 40 and 80 days aiming the early neuromuscular abnormalities that precede motor neuron death in ALS. A customized cDNA microarray platform containing 326 genes of Wnt/PI3 K and EMT was used and results revealed eight up-regulated (Loxl2, Pik4ca, Fzd9, Cul1, Ctnnd1, Snf1lk, Prkx, Dner) and nine down-regulated (Pik3c2a, Ripk4, Id2, C1qdc1, Eif2ak2, Rac3, Cds1, Inppl1, Tbl1x) genes at 40 days, and also one up-regulated (Pik3ca) and five down-regulated (Cd44, Eef2 k, Fzd2, Crebbp, Piki3r1) genes at 80 days. Also, protein-protein interaction networks grown from the differentially expressed genes of 40 and 80 days old mice have identified Grb2 and Src genes in both presymptomatic ages, thus playing a potential central role in the disease mechanisms. mRNA and protein levels for Grb2 and Src were found to be increased in 80 days old ALS mice. Gene expression changes in the skeletal muscle of transgenic ALS mice at presymptomatic periods of disease gave further evidence of early neuromuscular abnormalities that precede motor neuron death. The results were discussed in terms of initial triggering for neuronal degeneration and muscle adaptation to keep function before the onset of symptoms.Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 01/2014; · 2.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in the survival motor neuron (SMN1) gene lead to the neuromuscular disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Although SMA is primarily considered a motor neuron disease, the importance of muscle defects in its pathogenesis has not been fully examined. We use both primary cell culture and two different SMA model mice to demonstrate that reduced levels of Smn lead to a profound disruption in the expression of myogenic genes. This disruption was associated with a decrease in myofiber size and an increase in immature myofibers, suggesting that Smn is crucial for myogenic gene regulation and early muscle development. Histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A treatment of SMA model mice increased myofiber size, myofiber maturity and attenuated the disruption of the myogenic program in these mice. Taken together, our work highlights the important contribution of myogenic program dysregulation to the muscle weakness observed in SMA.Human Molecular Genetics 04/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor