Article

Eating for two: how metabolism establishes interspecies interactions in the gut

Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences and California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
Cell host & microbe (Impact Factor: 12.19). 10/2011; 10(4):336-47. DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2011.10.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In bacterial communities, "tight economic times" are the norm. Of the many challenges bacteria face in making a living, perhaps none are more important than generating energy, maintaining redox balance, and acquiring carbon and nitrogen to synthesize primary metabolites. The ability of bacteria to meet these challenges depends heavily on the rest of their community. Indeed, the most fundamental way in which bacteria communicate is by importing the substrates for metabolism and exporting metabolic end products. As an illustration of this principle, we will travel down a carbohydrate catabolic pathway common to many species of Bacteroides, highlighting the interspecies interactions established (often inevitably) at its key steps. We also discuss the metabolic considerations in maintaining the stability of host-associated microbial communities.

0 Followers
 · 
108 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human-associated microbes are the source of many bioactive microbial products (proteins and metabolites) that play key functions both in human host pathways and in microbe-microbe interactions. Culture-independent studies now provide an accelerated means of exploring novel bioactives in the human microbiome; however, intriguingly, a substantial fraction of the microbial metagenome cannot be mapped to annotated genes or isolate genomes and is thus of unknown function. Meta’omic approaches, including metagenomic sequencing, metatranscriptomics, metabolomics, and integration of multiple assay types, represent an opportunity to efficiently explore this large pool of potential therapeutics. In combination with appropriate follow-up validation, high-throughput culture-independent assays can be combined with computational approaches to identify and characterize novel and biologically interesting microbial products. Here we briefly review the state of microbial product identification and characterization and discuss possible next steps to catalog and leverage the large uncharted fraction of the microbial metagenome.
    Cell Metabolism 11/2014; 20(5):731-741. DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2014.10.003 · 16.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The animal gut serves as a primary location for the complex host-microbe interplay that is essential for homeostasis and may also reflect the types of ancient selective pressures that spawned the emergence of immunity in metazoans. In this review, we present a phylogenetic survey of gut host-microbe interactions and suggest that host defense systems arose not only to protect tissue directly from pathogenic attack but also to actively support growth of specific communities of mutualists. This functional dichotomy resulted in the evolution of immune systems much more tuned for harmonious existence with microbes than previously thought, existing as dynamic but primarily cooperative entities in the present day. We further present the protochordate Ciona intestinalis as a promising model for studying gut host-bacterial dialogue. The taxonomic position, gut physiology and experimental tractability of Ciona offer unique advantages in dissecting host-microbe interplay and can complement studies in other model systems.
    Developmental & Comparative Immunology 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2014.06.011 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The intestinal microbiota features intricate metabolic interactions involving the breakdown and reuse of host- and diet-derived nutrients. The competition for these resources can limit pathogen growth. Nevertheless, some enteropathogenic bacteria can invade this niche through mechanisms that remain largely unclear. Using a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea and a transposon mutant screen, we discovered that initial growth of Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Tm) in the unperturbed gut is powered by S. Tm hyb hydrogenase, which facilitates consumption of hydrogen (H2), a central intermediate of microbiota metabolism. In competitive infection experiments, a hyb mutant exhibited reduced growth early in infection compared to wild-type S. Tm, but these differences were lost upon antibiotic-mediated disruption of the host microbiota. Additionally, introducing H2-consuming bacteria into the microbiota interfered with hyb-dependent S. Tm growth. Thus, H2 is an Achilles' heel of microbiota metabolism that can be subverted by pathogens and might offer opportunities to prevent infection.
    Cell host & microbe 12/2013; 14(6):641-651. DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2013.11.002 · 12.19 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
3 Downloads
Available from