Top 10 plant viruses in Molecular Plant Pathology. Mol Plant Pathol

Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, 2132 TAMU, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2132, USA.
Molecular Plant Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.72). 12/2011; 12(9):938-54. DOI: 10.1111/j.1364-3703.2011.00752.x
Source: PubMed


Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10.

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Available from: Gary D Foster, Sep 26, 2014
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    • "Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), the type member of the genus Cucumovirus in the family Bromoviridae, is one of the most important plant viruses. Its host range is very wide; it infects more than 1200 plant species in 100 families, including ornamentals, woody plants and important crops such as pepper, lettuce, beans and cucurbits (Scholthof et al., 2011). Affected plants exhibit yellowish leaf areas, green and yellow mottling and stunting. "
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    ABSTRACT: To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea and Adalia bipunctata. The side effects of the active ingredients of the insecticides were evaluated with residual contact tests for the larvae and adults of these predators in the laboratory. Flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat were innocuous to last instar larvae and adults of C. carnea and A. bipunctata. Sulfoxaflor was slightly toxic to adults of C. carnea and was highly toxic to the L4 larvae of A. bipunctata. For A. bipunctata, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin were the most damaging compounds with a cumulative larval mortality of 100%. Deltamethrin was also the most toxic compound to larvae and adults of C. carnea. In accordance with the results obtained, the compounds flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat might be incorporated into IPM programs in combination with these natural enemies for the control of particular greenhouse pests. Nevertheless, the use of sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin in IPM strategies should be taken into consideration when releasing either of these biological control agents, due to the toxic behavior observed under laboratory conditions. The need for developing sustainable approaches to combine the use of these insecticides and natural enemies within an IPM framework is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemosphere 08/2015; 132. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.03.016 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "Annual losses due to tospovirus infections are estimated to be over $1 billion worldwide, with significant losses in yield and quality of vegetable and ornamental crops (Pappu et al., 2009). The type species of the genus, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), is the most widely spread, with a host range of more than 1000 plant species, including important crops such as pepper, potato, tobacco, tomato and numerous ornamental species (Scholthof et al., 2011). Tospovirus virions are surrounded by an envelope of hostderived lipids and contain a tripartite genome composed of three single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecules designated large (L), medium (M), and small (S). "
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    ABSTRACT: Tospoviruses are plant-infecting viruses belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. We used a collection of wild-type, phylogenetically distinct tomato spotted wilt virus isolates and related silencing-suppressor defective mutants to study the effects on the small RNA (sRNA) accumulation during infection of Nicotiana benthamiana. Our data showed that absence of a functional silencing suppressor determined a marked increase of the total amount of viral sRNAs (vsRNAs), and specifically of the 21 nt class. We observed a common under-representation of vsRNAs mapping to the intergenic region of S and M genomic segments, and preferential mapping of the reads against the viral sense open reading frames, with the exception of the NSs gene. The NSs-mutant strains showed enrichment of NSm-derived vsRNA compared to the expected amount based on gene size. Analysis of 5' terminal nucleotide preference evidenced a significant enrichment in U for the 21 nt- and in A for 24 nt- long endogenous sRNAs in all the samples. Hotspot analysis revealed a common abundant accumulation of reads at the 5' end of the L segment, mostly in the antiviral sense, for the NSs-defective isolates, suggesting that absence of the silencing suppressor can influence preferential targeting of the viral genome. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Virus Research 06/2015; 208. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2015.05.021 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    • "Rod-shaped TMV, certainly the most famous plant virus, was the first virus discovered. It holds the first position among the top ten plant viruses in molecular plant pathology [43] and is still an interesting research model today as an expression vector in the context of plant-derived vaccines [44]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of next-generation "deep" sequencing has enabled the study of virus populations with much higher resolutions. This new tool increases the possibility of observing mixed infections caused by combinations of plant viruses, which are likely to occur more frequently than previously thought. The biological impact of co-infecting viruses on their host has yet to be determined and fully understood, and the first step towards reaching this goal is the separation and purification of individual species. Ion-exchange monolith chromatography has been used successfully for the purification and concentration of different viruses, and number of them have been separated from plant homogenate or bacterial and eukaryotic lysate. Thus, the question remained as to whether different virus species present in a single sample could be separated. In this study, anion-exchange chromatography using monolithic supports was optimized for fast and efficient partial purification of three model plant viruses: Turnip yellow mosaic virus, Tomato bushy stunt virus, and Tobacco mosaic virus. The virus species, as well as two virus strains, were separated from each other in a single chromatographic experiment from an artificially mixed sample. Based on A260/280 ratios, we were able to attribute specific peaks to a certain viral morphology/structure (icosahedral or rod-shaped). This first separation of individual viruses from an artificially prepared laboratory mixture should encourage new applications of monolithic chromatographic supports in the separation of plant, bacterial, or animal viruses from all kinds of mixed samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Chromatography A 04/2015; 1388:69-78. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.01.097 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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