Top 10 plant viruses in Molecular Plant Pathology. Mol Plant Pathol

Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, 2132 TAMU, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2132, USA.
Molecular Plant Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.72). 12/2011; 12(9):938-54. DOI: 10.1111/j.1364-3703.2011.00752.x
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Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10.

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Available from: Gary D Foster, Sep 26, 2014
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    • "Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), the type member of the genus Cucumovirus in the family Bromoviridae, is one of the most important plant viruses. Its host range is very wide; it infects more than 1200 plant species in 100 families, including ornamentals, woody plants and important crops such as pepper, lettuce, beans and cucurbits (Scholthof et al., 2011). Affected plants exhibit yellowish leaf areas, green and yellow mottling and stunting. "
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    ABSTRACT: To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea and Adalia bipunctata. The side effects of the active ingredients of the insecticides were evaluated with residual contact tests for the larvae and adults of these predators in the laboratory. Flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat were innocuous to last instar larvae and adults of C. carnea and A. bipunctata. Sulfoxaflor was slightly toxic to adults of C. carnea and was highly toxic to the L4 larvae of A. bipunctata. For A. bipunctata, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin were the most damaging compounds with a cumulative larval mortality of 100%. Deltamethrin was also the most toxic compound to larvae and adults of C. carnea. In accordance with the results obtained, the compounds flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat might be incorporated into IPM programs in combination with these natural enemies for the control of particular greenhouse pests. Nevertheless, the use of sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin in IPM strategies should be taken into consideration when releasing either of these biological control agents, due to the toxic behavior observed under laboratory conditions. The need for developing sustainable approaches to combine the use of these insecticides and natural enemies within an IPM framework is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemosphere 08/2015; 132. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.03.016 · 3.34 Impact Factor
    • "Secondly, from an environmental perspective, because tospoviruses are currently controlled by targeting their thrips vectors with insecticides. Thirdly, from a biological perspective, because this strategy can be useful to analyse the intriguing biochemical and biological uniqueness of this virus genus (Scholthof et al. 2011). Both techniques presented here provide a transient platform for rapid and efficient testing the effectiveness of a genetic construct to generate plant virus resistance before committing to the arduous and challenging work of producing stable transgenic plants. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tospoviruses are devastating plant viruses causing severe economic losses in a diverse range of crops worldwide. Here, we describe the development and evaluation of an RNA interference (RNAi) broad-spectrum virus resistance strategy based on a unique and short hairpin-RNA-generating construct (pNhpRNA). This construct was designed from a region of the nucleocapsid gene (N) of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that showed a high sequence identity to the corresponding region in the related species Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV).To test the effectiveness of the pNhpRNA construct, we developed a silencing reporter assay based on three fusion proteins in which the complete viral N gene sequence from each of the three tospoviruses was fused in frame to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) sequence. Co-agroinoculation of these constructs with pNhpRNA into leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in a strong silencing phenotype determined by GFP decay and suppression of the three N genes at the RNA and protein levels. To test the potential of the pNhpRNA construct to generate virus-resistant plants, we infiltrated the whole shoots of N. benthamiana with pNhpRNA. When these infiltrated plants were mechanically inoculated with the mentioned viruses 100, 70, and 60 % resistance phenotypes to TSWV, GRSV, and TCSV, respectively, were observed. The induction of a broad tospovirus resistance with a simple construct and a minimized off-target effect are the main contributions of pNhpRNA.
    Biologia Plantarum 06/2015; 59(4):715-725. DOI:10.1007/s10535-015-0530-1 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    • "Annual losses due to tospovirus infections are estimated to be over $1 billion worldwide, with significant losses in yield and quality of vegetable and ornamental crops (Pappu et al., 2009). The type species of the genus, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), is the most widely spread, with a host range of more than 1000 plant species, including important crops such as pepper, potato, tobacco, tomato and numerous ornamental species (Scholthof et al., 2011). Tospovirus virions are surrounded by an envelope of hostderived lipids and contain a tripartite genome composed of three single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecules designated large (L), medium (M), and small (S). "
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    ABSTRACT: Tospoviruses are plant-infecting viruses belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. We used a collection of wild-type, phylogenetically distinct tomato spotted wilt virus isolates and related silencing-suppressor defective mutants to study the effects on the small RNA (sRNA) accumulation during infection of Nicotiana benthamiana. Our data showed that absence of a functional silencing suppressor determined a marked increase of the total amount of viral sRNAs (vsRNAs), and specifically of the 21 nt class. We observed a common under-representation of vsRNAs mapping to the intergenic region of S and M genomic segments, and preferential mapping of the reads against the viral sense open reading frames, with the exception of the NSs gene. The NSs-mutant strains showed enrichment of NSm-derived vsRNA compared to the expected amount based on gene size. Analysis of 5' terminal nucleotide preference evidenced a significant enrichment in U for the 21 nt- and in A for 24 nt- long endogenous sRNAs in all the samples. Hotspot analysis revealed a common abundant accumulation of reads at the 5' end of the L segment, mostly in the antiviral sense, for the NSs-defective isolates, suggesting that absence of the silencing suppressor can influence preferential targeting of the viral genome. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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