Clinical pharmacology of paliperidone palmitate a parenteral long-acting formulation for the treatment of schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Paliperidone Palmitate is a long-acting intramuscular atypical antipsychotic drug indicated for the acute maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Its mechanism of action, like all other atypical agents, is attributed to the antagonism of brain dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. The pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism of paliperidone palmitate are reviewed. Current studies for clinical efficacy of paliperidone palmitate for both acute and maintenance treatment and adherence in adults with schizophrenia are discussed. Studies for safety and tolerability are also reviewed.
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ABSTRACT: At the Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) Workshop held last January 14-15, 2014, participants from academia, industry, and governmental agencies involved in the development and regulation of nanomedicines discussed the current state of characterization, formulation development, manufacturing, and nonclinical safety evaluation of nanomaterial-containing drug products for human use. The workshop discussions identified areas where additional understanding of material attributes, absorption, biodistribution, cellular and tissue uptake, and disposition of nanosized particles would continue to inform their safe use in drug products. Analytical techniques and methods used for in vitro characterization and stability testing of formulations containing nanomaterials were discussed, along with their advantages and limitations. Areas where additional regulatory guidance and material characterization standards would help in the development and approval of nanomedicines were explored. Representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), Health Canada, and European Medicines Agency (EMA) presented information about the diversity of nanomaterials in approved and newly developed drug products. USFDA, Health Canada, and EMA regulators discussed the applicability of current regulatory policies in presentations and open discussion. Information contained in several of the recent EMA reflection papers was discussed in detail, along with their scope and intent to enhance scientific understanding about disposition, efficacy, and safety of nanomaterials introduced in vivo and regulatory requirements for testing and market authorization. Opportunities for interaction with regulatory agencies during the lifecycle of nanomedicines were also addressed at the meeting. This is a summary of the workshop presentations and discussions, including considerations for future regulatory guidance on drug products containing nanomaterials.The AAPS Journal 11/2014; 17(1). DOI:10.1208/s12248-014-9701-9 · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and impact on hospitalizations of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate (PP) treatment, in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia who had not responded satisfactorily to oral antipsychotics. In this 18-month, open-label, Phase-IIIb study from Asia-Pacific region, patients (18-50 years) with recent-onset (≤5 years) schizophrenia unsatisfactorily treated with previous oral antipsychotics were initiated on PP 150 mg eq on day 1, 100 mg eq on day 8, followed by flexible once monthly maintenance doses of 50-150 mg eq. The number and duration of hospitalizations were compared using a mirror analysis method between two periods: retrospective (12 months before PP initiation) and prospective (12 and 18 months after PP treatment) periods. A total of 303 out of 521 (58%) patients (mean age, 28.7 years; 65.5% men, 92.5% Asian) completed the study. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score improved significantly from baseline to month 18 (mean [standard deviation, SD] change: -11.3 [21.38], P<0.0001, primary endpoint). Subgroup analysis revealed greater improvements among patients with worse disease severity at baseline: PANSS ≥70 versus <70 (mean [SD] change: -23.1 [24.62] vs -4.7 [15.98], P<0.0001 each). Secondary efficacy endpoints such as Clinical Global Impression of Schizophrenia (CGI-SCH), Medication Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) scores showed significant improvements (P<0.0001) from baseline; 33.3% patients achieved symptom remission. In mirror analyses set (N=474), PP significantly (P<0.0001) reduced mean number of hospitalization days/person/year (12-month: 74.3 vs 19.7; 18-month: 74.3 vs 18.9) as well as percentage of patients requiring hospitalization in past 12 months (12-month: 39.7% vs 24.6%; 18-month: 39.7% vs 25%), and PP treatment increased the proportion of patients not requiring hospitalization (12-month: 60.3% vs 75.4%; 18-month: 60.3% vs 75%) from retrospective to prospective period. Adverse events (≥15%) were extrapyramidal symptoms-related (31.3%), injection-site pain (18.6%), and insomnia (15.2%). PP was efficacious and generally tolerable with significant reductions observed in both number of hospitalizations and days spent in hospital.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2015; 11:657-68. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S77778 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite their widespread use, long acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics (APs), are often regarded with some negativity because of the assumption of punishment, control and insufficient evolution towards psychosocial development of patients. However, LAI APs have proved effective in schizophrenia and other severe psychotic disorders because they assure stable blood levels, leading to a reduction of the risk of relapse. Therapeutic opportunities have also arisen after introduction of newer, second-generation LAI APs in recent years. Newer LAI APs are more readily dosed optimally, may be better tolerated and are better suited to integrated rehabilitation programmes. This review outlines the older and newer LAI APs available for the treatment of schizophrenia, with considerations of past and present pharmacological and therapeutic issues. Traditional, evidence-based approaches to systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials are of limited utility in this area so this paper’s blending of experimental trials with observational research is particularly appropriate and effective.Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology 07/2014; DOI:10.1177/2045125314540297 · 1.53 Impact Factor