Extraembryonic Origin of Circulating Endothelial Cells
ABSTRACT Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) are contained in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of adult humans and participate to the revascularization of ischemic tissues. These cells represent attractive targets for cell or gene therapy aimed at improving ischemic revascularization or inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. The embryonic origin of CEC has not been addressed previously. Here we use quail-chick chimeras to study CEC origin and participation to the developing vasculature. CEC are traced with different markers, in particular the QH1 antibody recognizing only quail endothelial cells. Using yolk-sac chimeras, where quail embryos are grafted onto chick yolk sacs and vice-versa, we show that CEC are generated in the yolk sac. These cells are mobilized during wound healing, demonstrating their participation to angiogenic repair processes. Furthermore, we found that the allantois is also able to give rise to CEC in situ. In contrast to the yolk sac and allantois, the embryo proper does not produce CEC. Our results show that CEC exclusively originate from extra-embryonic territories made with splanchnopleural mesoderm and endoderm, while definitive hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial cells are of intra-embryonic origin.
SourceAvailable from: Iain D Keenan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular system consists of many cell types with distinct embryonic origins. Cells from an Islet1 (Isl1)-expressing progenitor population make a substantial contribution to the developing heart. We reasoned that cells derived from Isl1-expressing progenitors might contribute more widely to the cardiovascular system. We show that cells derived from an Isl1-expressing progenitor lineage make a wide contribution to the systemic vasculature and that embryos conditionally deficient for Rac1 within this cell population develop defects in the non-cardiac vasculature. These data define new roles for Isl1 in the developing embryo and demonstrate a contribution of Isl1-expressing progenitors to vascular endothelium in vivo.FEBS letters 05/2012; 586(13):1790-4. DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2012.05.014 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prior to this study, the earliest appearance of circulating endothelial cells in warm-blooded animals was unknown. Time-lapse imaging of germ-line transformed Tie1-YFP reporter quail embryos combined with the endothelial marker antibody QH1 provides definitive evidence for the existence of circulating endothelial cells - from the very beginning of blood flow. Blood-smear counts of circulating cells from Tie1-YFP embryos showed that up to 30% of blood-borne cells are Tie1 positive; though cells expressing low levels of YFP were also positive for benzidine, a hemoglobin stain, suggesting that these cells were differentiating into erythroblasts. Electroporation-based time-lapse experiments, exclusively targeting the intra-embryonic mesoderm were combined with QH1 immunostaining. The latter antibody marks quail endothelial cells. Together the optical data provide conclusive evidence that endothelial cells can enter blood flow from vessels of the embryo proper, as well as from extra-embryonic areas. When Tie1-YFP positive cells and tissues are transplanted to wild type host embryos, fluorescent cells emigrate from such transplants and join host vessels; subsequently a few YFP cells are shed into circulation. These data establish that entering circulation is a commonplace activity of embryonic vascular endothelial cells. We conclude that in the class of vertebrates most closely related to mammals a normal component of primary vasculogenesis is production of endothelial cells that enter circulation from all vessels, both intra- and extra-embryonic.PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e60841. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060841 · 3.53 Impact Factor