Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Not Due to Noncompliance but to Between-Patient Pharmacokinetic Variability

Department of Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, TX, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 12/2011; 204(12):1951-9. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir658
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It is believed that nonadherence is the proximate cause of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-tuberculosis) emergence. The level of nonadherence associated with emergence of MDR-tuberculosis is unknown. Performance of a randomized controlled trial in which some patients are randomized to nonadherence would be unethical; therefore, other study designs should be utilized.
We performed hollow fiber studies for both bactericidal and sterilizing effect, with inoculum spiked with 0.5% rifampin- and isoniazid-resistant isogenic strains in some experiments. Standard therapy was administered daily for 28-56 days, with extents of nonadherence varying between 0% and 100%. Sizes of drug-resistant populations were compared using analysis of variance. We also explored the effect of pharmacokinetic variability on MDR-tuberculosis emergence using computer-aided clinical trial simulations of 10 000 Cape Town, South Africa, tuberculosis patients.
Therapy failure was only encountered at extents of nonadherence ≥60%. Surprisingly, isoniazid- and rifampin-resistant populations did not achieve ≥1% proportion in any experiment and did not achieve a higher proportion with nonadherence. However, clinical trial simulations demonstrated that approximately 1% of tuberculosis patients with perfect adherence would still develop MDR-tuberculosis due to pharmacokinetic variability alone.
These data, based on a preclinical model, demonstrate that nonadherence alone is not a sufficient condition for MDR-tuberculosis emergence.

1 Follower
10 Reads
  • Source
    • "However, administration of the studied rifampicin and moxifloxacin doses resulted in large interindividual variability in exposures both in plasma and CSF [6]. Accumulating data suggest that exposure to TB drugs is relevant for outcome in pulmonary TB [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent data suggest that intensified antimicrobial treatment may improve the outcome of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Considering that drug exposure is the intermediate link between dose and effect, we examined the concentration-response relationship for rifampicin and moxifloxacin in TBM patients. In an open-label, phase 2 clinical trial performed in Indonesia ( NCT01158755), 60 TBM patients were randomised to receive standard-dose (450mg oral) or high-dose rifampicin (600mg intravenous) plus either oral moxifloxacin (400mg or 800mg) or ethambutol (750mg). After 14 days, all patients continued with standard tuberculosis treatment. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed once in every patient during the first three critical days. Differences in exposure between patients who died or survived were tested with independent samples t-tests. The relationship between drug exposure and mortality was examined using Cox regression. Compared with patients who died during the 2 weeks of intensified treatment, surviving patients had significantly higher rifampicin plasma AUC0-6h, plasma Cmax and CSF Chighest. Additionally, patients had a 32-43% lower relative likelihood of dying with an interquartile range increase in rifampicin exposure. Moxifloxacin exposure did not show a clear relationship with survival. From exposure-response curves, a rifampicin plasma AUC0-6h of ∼70mg·h/L (AUC0-24h of ∼116mgh/L) and a Cmax of ∼22mg/L were deduced as minimum target values for treatment. A strong concentration-effect relationship was found, with higher rifampicin exposure leading to better TBM survival. The current treatment dose of rifampicin is suboptimal; higher doses of rifampicin should be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 02/2015; 45(5). DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.12.027 · 4.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Similarly, in bone/joint disease, the percentage of drug in foci in sclerotic bone is 0-8% for rifampin, 0-6% for pyrazinamide, and 0-23% for isoniazid [47]. These drug-concentration scenarios are known to lead to acquired drug resistance and poor efficacy [21,48]. Finally, it could be that for some syndromes such as meningitis, the M. tuberculosis genotypes that preferentially cause such disease are more difficult to kill and have a higher propensity to fail and develop drug resistance [49-52]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis is classified as either pulmonary or extra-pulmonary (EPTB). While much focus has been paid to pulmonary tuberculosis, EPTB has received scant attention. Moreover, EPTB is viewed as one wastebasket diagnosis, as "the other" which is not pulmonary. This is a retrospective cohort study of all patients treated for EPTB in the state of Texas between January 2000 and December 2005, who had no pulmonary disease. Clinical and epidemiological factors were abstracted from electronic records of the Report of Verified Case of Tuberculosis. The long-term outcome, which is death by December 2011, was established using the Social Security Administration Death Master File database. Survival in EPTB patients was compared to those with latent tuberculosis, as well as between different types of EPTB, using Cox proportional hazard models. A hybrid of the machine learning method of classification and regression tree analyses and standard regression models was used to identify high-order interactions and clinical factors predictive of long-term all-cause mortality. Four hundred and thirty eight patients met study criteria; the median study follow-up period for the cohort was 7.8 (inter-quartile range 6.0-10.1) years. The overall all-cause mortality rate was 0.025 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.021-0.030) per 100 person-year of follow-up. The significant predictors of poor long-term outcome were age (hazard ratio [HR] for each year of age-at-diagnosis was 1.05 [CI: 1.04-1.06], treatment duration, type of EPTB and HIV-infection (HR = 2.16; CI: 1.22, 3.83). Mortality in genitourinary tuberculosis was no different from latent tuberculosis, while meningitis had the poorest long-term outcome of 46.2%. Compared to meningitis the HR for death was 0.50 (CI: 0.27-0.91) for lymphatic disease, 0.42 (CI: 0.21-0.81) for bone/joint disease, and 0.59 (CI:0.27-1.31) for peritonitis. The relationship between mortality and therapy duration for each type of EPTB was a unique "V" shaped curve, with the lowest mortality observed at different therapy durations for each, beyond which mortality increased. EPTB is comprised of several different diseases with different outcomes and durations of therapy. The "V" shaped relationship between therapy duration and outcome leads to the hypothesis that longer duration of therapy may lead to higher patient mortality.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 03/2014; 14(1):115. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-115 · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We conducted a prospective study of 18 adult volunteers (male-to-female ratio of 1) whose body mass index fell into categories of <25, 25 to 40, or >40 kg/m(2), who received a single oral dose of 1,600 mg ethambutol. Only individuals with normal renal function were recruited. The minimum body mass (M) was 45.6 kg, the median was 90.8 kg, and the maximum weight was 160.4 kg. Ethambutol pharmacokinetics were best described by a two-compartment model. Inclusion of weight as a covariate dramatically improved the model, with a relative likelihood approaching infinity. The typical clearance was 42.6 liters/h. Ethambutol systemic clearance was proportional to (M/45.6)(3/4) and thus obeyed fractal geometry-based laws. This means that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) actually decreased for obese patients compared to that for leaner patients, reducing chances of concentration-dependent toxicity. On the other hand, such reduced AUCs could lead to therapy failure. Thus, new and individualized ethambutol dosing regimens need to be designed for obese and extremely obese patients.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2011; 56(3):1502-7. DOI:10.1128/AAC.05623-11 · 4.48 Impact Factor
Show more


10 Reads
Available from